Ielts Writing

mani24

عضو جدید
کاربر ممتاز
Topic: Affirmative action
Question: Do you think that people from certain ethnic backgrounds should
be given greater access to education?


Food, water and shelter are basic needs for a human. We need them to keep
ourselves alive. However, nowadays, there is also a need for education to make sure
we can survive on this earth. People need education to become knowledgeable. With
knowledge, we will able to work for our basic needs. As education is essential to
everyone, should people from certain ethic backgrounds be given greater access to
education than the others?
In my opinion, everyone should be given an equal chance to access education as
everyone possesses equal human rights. Discrimination should not be practiced.
Everyone has the right to obtain education and there should not be an unfair
distribution of education.
In addition, giving people from certain ethnic backgrounds greater access to
education will results in wider income gaps between ethnic groups. For ethnic groups
that attain better access to education, they are more knowledgeable than ethnic
groups that do not have the advantage to access to better quality of education. With
more knowledge, they will able to acquire better jobs with higher salaries. Their
income will be greater than the others.
Besides, a country that gives all its ethnic groups even access to education will
have a better image in others countries. When all the ethnic groups get equal access
to education, the country will be more civilized as all of its civilians are educated well.
Hence this will portray a model country whereby, different ethnics groups are able to
excel despite their differences.
In conclusion, everyone has equal rights. Therefore, there should not be
discrimination of ethnic groups where only certain ethnic groups are given greater
access to education. Governments should provide education to all their citizens to
decrease the illiteracy rate in their countries and hence improve the living standards
of their countries.

Comments

Good structure and content let down by a large number of article errors.

Rating: IELTs Band 7.5 Word Count: 339

 

Sima

مدیر تالار مهندسی هسته ای همکار مدیر تالار زبان
مدیر تالار
کاربر ممتاز
ویژه‌نامه آیلتس

ویژه‌نامه آیلتس


در این مقاله دو بخشی استاد رفیعی مهمترین تکنیک های رایتینگ آیلتس را به شما آموزش می دهد. توجه داشته باشید که به کار بردن این تکنیک ها می تواند نمره بسیار بالایی برای شما داشته باشد.






آزمون رایتینگ آیلتس مشتمل بر 60 دقیقه با دو بخش است.
بخش1- یک نمودار یا جدول به شما عرضه می شود و شما باید تقریبا یک مبحث 150 لغاتی را در حدود 20 دقیقه در
مورد آن بنویسید. باید نمودار یا جدول را ارزیابی کنید ، یادداشتهای خود را سازماندهی کنید و انها را در یک شرح
منسجم و بی تناقص گسترش دهید.
بخش 2- موضوعی به شما ارائه می شود و شما باید تقریبا شرحی 250 لغتی و در حدود 40 دقیقه در مورد آن
بنویسید. هیچ جواب درستی برای ان موضوع وجود ندارد. شما باید موضوع را ارزیابی کنید، یادداشتهای خود را
سازماندهی کنید و آنها را در یک واکنش منسجم و بی تناقص گسترش دهید.
به شما در مورد اینکه تا چه مقدار می توانید انگلیسی نوشتاری استاندارد را مورد استفاده قرار دهید، یادداشتهای
خودرا سازماندهی و شرح دهید و آنها را با دلایل و مثالها توضیح دهید، نمره داده خواهد شد.
اندیشه ناگهانی
سه تا پنج دقیقه اول را صرف فکر بکر در اندیشه خود کنید. هر عقیده ای را که در مورد جدول یا نمودار در ذهنتان
وجود دارد، یادداشت کنید. هدف این است که همه اطلاعات مربوطه از شکافهای حافظه شما دریافت شود. در این
مورد، هر چیزی روی کاغذ آورده می شود. هر عقیده ای را یادداشت کنید، علیرغم اینکه در ابتدا چگونه به نظر می
رسد. می توانید هم از کاغذ چرکنویس و هم از واژه پرداز استفاده کنید تا سریعا افکار و عقاید خود را یادداشت کنید.
در هر حال واژه پرداز به شدت مورد استفاده قرار می گیرد، مخصوصا اگر شما یک تایپیست سریعی باشید.
توانایی از راه تنوع
بهترین یادداشتها شامل تنوع مثالها و دلایل می باشد. چنانکه فکر بکری داشته باشید ، جنبه های دیگر را مورد
بررسی قرار دهید. نه تنها برای هر موضوعی دو جهت وجود دارد، بلکه جنبه های غیر شمارشی هم که می توان آنها
را بررسی کرد وجود دارد. در هر موضوعی ، گروههای مختلف موثر هستند، با دسترسی زیاد همان برداشت یا حالت
، اما از طریق کوره راههای گوناگون. سعی کنید موضوع را تا جایی که می توانید از جنبه های مختلف ببینید. از هر
زاویه و از هر موقعیت مناسب به این قضیه نگاه کنید. هر چقدر از دلایل متفاوت استفاده کنید، یادداشتها متعادل تر
می شوند و نمره بهتری می گیرید.
مثال
موضوع شغل ازاد، دو جهت ندارد. عرضه ان بر سیاستمداران، تولید داخلی (آمریکا) ، تولیدات داخلی ، اقتصاد امریکا ،
اقتصاد جهانی ، پیمان استراتژیک ، خرده فروشان ، کلی فروشان، مصرف کنندگان، اتحادیه ها، کارگران، و مبادله
چیزهایی از کالا بزرگتر، مانند عقاید، باورها، و فرهنگها تاثیر می گذارد. هر چه بیشتر به این زوایایی دسترسی پیدا
کنید ، استدلال شما مستحکم تر و حالات شما قوی تر خواهد شد.
بعلاوه، از اطلاعاتی که مربوط به چگونگی تاثیر موضوع بر افراد دیگر است ، استفاده نکنید. از تجربیات و دیدگاههای
خودتان بطور آزاد استنباط کنید. یک تجربه شخصی را که داشته اید و احساسات خودتان را از ان لحظه شرح دهید.
هر چیزی را که در جامعه می بینید یا در اجتماع مشاهده می کنید ، می تواند در مورد دوره بیشتر حالات شما در
موضوع گسترش یابد.
یک عقیده اصلی را انتخاب کنید
زمانی با جریان خلاق خود کار ها را انجام می دادید، صبر کنید و انها را مرور کنید.
کدام عقیده را می توانستید با اطلاعات بیشتری بیان کنید؟ تقریبا این امر مهم است که نموداری را که به شما اجازه
خواهد داد تا یک پوشش دقیق و فراگیر از نمودار و جدول داشته باشید ، انتخاب کنید. این امر مربوط به گناه شخصی
شما نمی باشد، اما مربوط به نوشتن یک شرح عقلانی و فشرده می باشد.
باغ را وجین کنید
هر باغ عقاید را باید وجین کرد. عقایدی را که به ذهنتان خطور می کند، قطعه های بدون هدف اطلاعات ارزش امیخته
می شود. بطور منظم جلو بروید و انهایی را که بهترین هستند ، انتخاب کنید. بهترین عقاید نکته های قوی هستند که
برای نوشتن چند جمله یا پاراگراف ، آسان باشند.
یک جریان منطقی ایجاد کنید
اکنون که می دانید از کدام عقیده می خواهید استفاده کنید و بر انها تمرکز و سازماندهی کنید. نکته های نوشتاری
خودرا در یک برنامه منطقی قرار دهید. عقایدی را که بر روی انها تمرکز می کنید، دارا خواهید شد و باید آنها را در
سکانسی که در یک کوره راه صاف، محسوس از نقطه به نقطه جاری می شود تا اینکه خواننده از یک عقیده در کوره
راه منطقی به عقیده دیگر به آرامی حرکت کند. خواننده ها باید احساس تداومی مانند اینکه یادداشتهای شما را می
خوانند، داشته باشند. شما نمی خواهید یادداشتی داشته باشید که به عقب و جلو بپرد.
موتور خود را روشن کنید
شما یک جریان منطقی از طرحهای اصلی دارید که برنامه نوشتاری را آغاز می کنید. موضوعی را در سکانسی که
برای خودتان قرار داده اید، توسعه دهید. خودتان قدم بردارید. برای هر کدام از طرحهایی که انها را گسترش می
دهید ، زمان زیادی صرف نکنید. برای همه آنها زمانی داشته باشید. اطمینان داشته باشید که نظاره گر زمان خود
خواهید بود. اگر برای نوشتن طرحهای خود 20 دقیقه زمان داشته باشید و 10 عقیده داشته باشید ، می توانید فقط
برای هر طرح 2 دقیقه زمان استفاده کنید. برای آموختن اطلاعات زیادی در مورد وازه ها در مدت زمان کوتاهی، دلهره
آور می شود ، اما اگر خودتان قدم بردارید، می توانید همه انها را انجام دهید. اگر احساس کردید که جلو افتاده اید ،
کار را تندتر کنید. هر طرحی را سریعتر بنویسید ، با صرف زمان کمتر برای توسعه طرح و از آن ذخیره بردارید.
وقتی توسعه طرحی را به پایان بردید ، برگردید به دوره گره گشایی، جایی که طرحهای خود را می نوشتید. جلو بروید
و طرحهایی را که راجع به آنها می نویسید پاک کنید. این عمل به شما اجازه می دهد که به چیزهایی که نیاز دارید
راجع به چیزهای بعدی بنویسید، مشاهده کنید و همچنین به شما اجازه می دهد که خود اقدام کنید و آنچه را که
برای حفاظت قرار داده اید، ببینید.
 

Persia1

مدیر تالار زبان انگلیسی
مدیر تالار
مقاله بی نظیر استاد رفیعی در مورد نحوه نگارش Writing

مقاله بی نظیر استاد رفیعی در مورد نحوه نگارش Writing



نویسنده: استاد حامد رفیعی

اشاره: در این مقاله استاد رفیعی به بهترین نحو ممکن مطالب بسیار ارزشمندی را در رابطه با نگارش Writing آموزش داده اند.

همانطور که به خاطر دارید، در آزمون General Writing دو قسمت وجود دارد:
قسمت اول: نوشتن یک نامه
قسمت دوم: نوشتن یک انشاء
نوشتن نامه نباید از شما بیشتر از 20 دقیقه وقت بگیرد و بنابراین 40 دقیقه هم برای انشاء زمان باقی خواهد ماند. معمولاً همه ما در نوشتن نامه یا انشاء، خصوصاً به انگلیسی، به اندازه ای که باید خوب عمل نمی کنیم. اما خوب اینجا یک سورپرایز وجود دارد و آن هم تکنیکهایی است که "نوشتن" را به قدری آسان می سازد که هر کسی میتواند از عهده اش بر بیاید. پس با هم به کارمان ادامه می دهیم.
اول: چند رهنمود کلی
شما دو برگه پاسخنامه دریافت خواهید کرد که بر روی آن بنویسید. یکی برای قسمت اول writing یا همان نامه و دیگری برای قسمت دوم writing یا همان انشاء. نوشتارتان را مرتب، تمیز و طوری بنویسید که خوب در نظر بیاید. یک خط خالی بین پاراگرافها قرار بدهید و در حاشیه های برگه پاسخنامه چیزی ننویسید. اگر مرتکب اشتباهی شدید، آن را خط خطی نکنید و فقط یک خط بر روی آن بکشید.
اگر دستورالعملی وجود داشت که از شما خواسته بود چندین مورد را در خصوص چیزی بنویسید، آنها را بصورت A,B,C و ... شروع کرده و در مورد هر یک از آنها توضیح بدهید. این برای نمره شما مهم است. شما باید به تصحصح کننده نوشتار، نشان بدهید که دستورالعملها را خوانده اید و آنها را فهمیده اید چون در غیر اینصورت او ممکن است بر خلاف این فکر کند. اینها چند نمونه دستورالعمل هستند:
- وضعیت را توضیح بدهید
- مشکلتان را توضیح بدهید
- راه حل پیشنهاد بدهید
یکی از بارزترین اشتباهات این است که دستورالعمل داده شده برای تکلیف نوشتار را کپی کنید. این کار مطلقاً ممنوع است، وقت با ارزش را تلف می کند و باعث از دست دادن نمره می شود. شما فقط وقتی می توانید آنچه در دستورالعمل خواسته شده است را بنویسید که از لغات و کلمات دیگری برای بیان آن استفاده کنید.
طول نوشتار خیلی مهم است. بنابراین اگر نتوانستید که به سقف تعیین شده لغت (150 لغت برای نامه و 250 لغت برای انشاء) برسید، سعی کنید به این سقف نزدیک بشوید.
این قوانین ساده، هم برای نامه و هم برای انشاء صادق هستند. آنها را به کار ببندید و کاری که شما در خصوص نوشتارتان انجام بدهید، اثر خوبی را در تصحیح کننده نوشتار شما بر جای خواهد گذاشت.
نکات Writing Task1 - نامه
انواع نامه ها
امتحان ممکن است فقط یکی از 4 نوع نامه را از شما بخواهد:
- نامه شکایت / درخواست اطلاعات
- نامه درخواست استخدام
- نامه شخصی
- نامه رسمی اداری
قوانینی برای چگونگی نگارش هر یک از نامه های نوع های فوق وجود دارند. وقتی که نامه شما توسط تصحیح کننده درجه بندی می شود، ساختار، کلمات، سلیس بودن و زبان از اهمیت برخوردار است. بنابراین من در اینجا به شما یک نمونه از هر نوع از این نامه ها را با هم با جملات و فرمهای گفتارشان نشان خواهم داد و شما تنها کاری که لازم است انجام دهید، این است که اطلاعات مخصوص مطلب خودتان را در آن قرار دهید. همچنین من به شما مثالهایی را نشان خواهم داد که به شما نشان خواهد داد نامه شما چه شکلی باید داشته باشد.
شکایت نامه
این نوعی از نامه است که شما باید در خصوص یک موضوعی، شکایت بنویسید که ممکن است در مورد چیزی که شما خریده اید، یا خدمات بدی در مورد چیزی به شما داده اند، یا اتفاقی که برای شما رخ داده است، باشد. شما باید آن را شرح بدهید و درخواست عملکرد مناسبی را از سوی افراد وابسته داشته باشید.
در این نوع از نامه، 4 پاراگراف وجود دارد که باید اینگونه باشد:
1-با Dear Sir/Madam, شروع شود (یا با نوشتن نام شخصی که در دستورالعمل سوال به شما داده شده است).بصورت کوتاه (در یک یا دو جمله) شرح بدهید که از چه چیزی شکایت دارید:
Im writing to express my dissatisfaction with the tape recorder that I purchased in your store.
2- جزئیات بیشتری را شرح دهید.
A) چه چیزی رخ داده است، چه مشکلی وجود دارد:
I purchased a tape recorder in your store on 12/3/2005, just 3 days ago. After a few times that I used it, the "Play" button broke off.
B) شما از چه چیزی احساس بدشانسی می کنید:
I was very surprised to see the new improved model with 2 years of warranty breaking so soon and for no reason at all.
C) شما چه کاری برای رفع این مشکل انجام دادید:
I contacted your store immediately in order to return the tape recorder and spoke to the shift manager. He refused to replace the tape recorder and suggested that I had it repaired.
D) شما چه احساسی در مورد این مشکل دارید:
You can imagine how receiving this offer upset me.
این پاراگراف باید بلندترین پاراگراف در طول متن نامه باشد. شما حتی میتوانید آن را به چند بخش تقسیم کنید.
3- در مورد کاری که آنها شما می خواهید که آنها انجام بدهند بنویسید و این که چه کاری انجام خواهید داد اگر آنها چیزی که می خواهید را انجام ندهند:
I insist that you replace the damaged tape recorder and send me a new one. Otherwise I will be forced to stop my payments to your store.
4- پایان دهنده رسمی نامه را بنویسید، نام و امضاء خودتان را هم در آخر بنویسید:
I look forward to hearing from you.
اگر نام کسی که برایش می نویسید را می دانید، به این صورت امضاء کنید:
Yours sincerely,
John Smith
اگر نام کسی که برایش می نویسید را نمی دانید، به این صورت امضاء کنید:
Yours faithfully,
John Smith
جملات مفید
جملاتی که در ادامه خواهد آمد، کاری می کنند که نامه شما را خوب به نظر برسد. اگر به خاطر سپردن همه آنها برای شما سخت است، فقط یکی را برای هر پاراگراف به خاطر بسپارید و از آن برای هر نوع نامه ای با این عنوان، استفاده کنید.
برای پاراگراف اول:

  • "I am writing to complain about..."
  • "I am writing in regard to..."
  • "The reason I am writing to you is (a problem with...)"
  • "I am writing to express my concern about/dissatisfaction with..."
  • "I would like to bring the matter of ... to your attention."
  • "I would like to draw your attention to ..."
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برای پاراگراف دوم:

  • "I was supposed to receive ... Unfortunately, that never happened."
  • "You can imagine how unhappy I was to discover ..."
  • "I regret to inform you that your service was below my expectations."
  • "When I tried to contact you by phone, no one could offer me any sensible answer."
  • "I contacted your representative in .... Unfortunately, he denied me the service that I requested."
برای پاراگراف سوم:

  • "The ideal solution would be ... "
  • "I hope you can settle this matter by ...(doing something)"
  • "I insist on getting a refund of ..."
  • "Please look into this matter as soon as possible."
  • "I believe this matter deserves your urgent attention."
نمونه ای از یک شکایت نامه:
این مثال به شما نشان خواهد داد که یک نمونه خوب از یک نامه شکایت چگونه باید باشد:
Dear Sir/Madam,
The reason I am writing to you is poor quality of a food processor, which I bought in your store two weeks ago. After only two times it was in use, problems started to appear.
Naturally, I returned the blender to you to be replaced with a new one. Your assistant said that I would have to wait only a week. After two weeks the food processor had still not arrived. Finally, four weeks later, I was contacted by your representative. Imagine my feelings when I learned from him that I cannot receive the same model of food processor as I bought. As a solution he offered that I upgrade my model to a better one and this too will take two weeks. I am very disappointed with both the equipment and the service have I received Therefore I expect a full refund of 180$ as soon as possible.
Yours faithfully,
Mr. Smith
نامه درخواست اطلاعات
این نامه ای است که شما برای یک شخص جهت دریافت اطلاعات می نویسید. بعنوان مثال، ممکن است شما ممکن است بخواهید ساعات حرکت قطار را بگیرید یا لیست کتابهایی با عنوان مشخص یا خط سیر سفری که در آفریقا رزرو کرده اید را بخواهید.
در این نوع نامه، سه پاراگراف وجود دارد که باید شبیه به این باشند:
1- با Dear Sir / Madam شروع شود (یا با نام شخصی که در دستورالعمل سوال داده شده است).
شرح مختصری (در یک یا دو جمله) بدهید که شما علاقمند به گرفتن چه نوع اطلاعاتی هستید.
"I am writing to ask for information about membership in the Shape sports club."
2- شرح بیشتری در مورد جزئیات اینکه شما چه کسی هستید، دقیقاً چه نوع اطلاعاتی می خواهید، چرا، چه موقع و با چه فرمی (مثلاً یک نامه، یک فکس، از طریق تماس تلفنی یا نظیر آن) به اطلاعات احتیاج دارید. این باید بزرگترین پاراگراف در کل نامه باشد.
3- پایان دهنده رسمی نامه را بنویسید، نام و امضاء خودتان را هم در آخر بنویسید:
I look forward to hearing from you.
اگر نام کسی که برایش می نویسید را می دانید، به این صورت امضاء کنید:
Yours sincerely,
John Smith
اگر نام کسی که برایش می نویسید را نمی دانید، به این صورت امضاء کنید:
Yours faithfully,
John Smith
نمونه ای از یک نامه درخواست اطلاعات
این مثال به شما نشان خواهد داد که یک نمونه کامل از یک نامه درخواست اطلاعات چگونه باید باشد:
Dear Sir/Madam,
I am writing to ask for complete itinerary of a trip to Africa that I booked with your company.
The trip I refer to starts on August 12, 2005. I am supposed to leave with a group of 16 people. The information I would like to obtain should include the following:
1) Names and phone numbers of other people in my group.
2) Airline names, flight numbers, departure and arrival times.
3) Names and locations of hotels that you have booked for me, and on what bases, bed and breakfast, half board or full board.
4) A list of optional day trips that are available and their prices.
5) A list of local doctors I can contact in case of emergency.
6) A contact number for your company representative in Africa.
7) A receipt for the payment I have made on July 28, 2005.

You could send the above-mentioned information to my e-mail or a fax. I would like to receive it as soon as possible but not later than a week before my flight.
I look forward to hearing from you.
Yours faithfully,
Mr. Smith
نامه درخواست استخدام
این نامه ای است که شما برای یک منصب خاص شغلی که اشغال نشده است می نویسید. در زندگی واقعی شما باید رزومه خودتان را نیز به آن پیوست نمایید که البته در آزمون آیلتس احتیاجی به به آن نیست و فقط نوشتن نامه کفایت می کند. در این نوع نامه 4 پاراگراف لازم داریم که به شرح زیر هستند:
1- شروع نامه با Dear Sir / Madam (یا با نام شخصی که در دستورالعمل سوال داده شده است) و نوشتن اینکه شما برای چه موقعیت شغلی درخواست استخدام دارید و این موقعیت شغلی در کجا آگهی شده بوده است.
"I would like to apply for the position of secretary advertised in Herald Tribune of April 15[SUP]th [/SUP]2005."
2- در مورد مهارتها، مدارک تحصیلی و تجربیاتتان بنویسید:
"I am a Software Engineer with more than ten years of experience in ..."
"I graduated in Some Study Course from Famous University, 1996"
"At present I am employed as a ... by company ..."
"I am familiar with..."
"My skills include working with ..., performing ..., managing..."
"In course of my present job I have been responsible for the planning and organization of ..."
"I am used to working at a fast pace to meet deadlines".
همانطور که در نامه های قبلی گفتیم، این پاراگراف باید بزرگترین پاراگراف در کل نامه باشد.
3- توضیح دهید که چرا شما به این شغل علاقمند هستید. انگیزه خودتان را در همکاری شرح دهید و درخواست یک زمان ملاقات حضوری در نزدیکترین زمان ممکن بکنید:
"I would like to apply my skills in your company."
"I believe the position you offer will give me opportunity to..."
"If you find my skills and experience suitable, please contact me to schedule an interview."
"I am looking forward to discussing my credentials with you personally."
4- از شخص مخاطب تشکر کنید و مثل نامه های قبلی، از پایان دهنده استاندارد نامه استفاده کنید:
"Thank you for your time and consideration."
اگر نام کسی که برایش می نویسید را می دانید، به این صورت امضاء کنید:
Yours sincerely,
John Smith
اگر نام کسی که برایش می نویسید را نمی دانید، به این صورت امضاء کنید:
Yours faithfully,
John Smith
نمونه ای از یک نامه درخواست استخدام
Dear Sir/Madam,
I would like to apply for the position of flight attendant, advertised in "The Wings" issue of October 2005.
As you can see from my CV, I am a flight attendant with 5 years of experience. I had a one-year apprenticeship with United Airways, and the following 3 years I worked for Sky-High Airlines. The last year I was working for Air Comfort Airlines, providing customer service to first class passengers.
I have a pleasant personality and good communication skills. I am familiar with service and emergency instructions, and used to working unsupervised. My experience includes administering first aid to ill passengers and dealing with unusual incidents. I am available to work weekends, holydays and overtime.

If you find my skills and experience suitable, please contact me to schedule an interview. I am looking forward to discussing my credentials with you personally.
Thanks you for your time and consideration.
Yours faithfully,
S. Holts
نامه شخصی
نامه شخصی معمولاً برای یک دوست یا یک خویشاوند نوشته می شود. این نامه قوانین سخت و متعددی ندارد و من اینجا چند پیشنهاد دارم که مطلب را برای شما روشنتر می کند:
1- شروع با عباراتی مثل "Dear Linda" یا "My dearest Charlie" و بعد از آن معذرت خواهی برای فراموشی در نوشتن نامه
"I am sorry I havent written for so long."
و بعد از آن قصد خود را از نگارش نامه بنویسید:
"I am writing to thank/tell/ask/apologize/wish..."
2- شروع کنید به نوشتن عنوانی که در پاراگراف 1 به آن اشاره کردید. این بزرگترین پاراگرافی است که در این نوع از نامه ها باید وجود داشته باشد. اگر امکان داشت، میتوانید مطلب خود به دو پاراگراف تقسیم نمایید.
3- امضاء:
"With best wishes, Kathy"
"Yours, Louse"
"With love and many thanks from me, Diana"
مثالی از یک نامه شخصی
Dear Sarah,
I am sorry I havent written for so long. My work keeps me so busy, that I never have a minute to myself. I am writing to invite you to my wedding. Since you have never met my future husband, you must have a million questions running through your mind right now. I hope I can tell you enough to put your mind at ease until we meet. Five months ago I decided to take a cruise to Bahamas, to get away for a little while. And on that cruise Faith arraigned for me to meet my future husband Alan. He is the most wonderful, loving person you could ever imagine and we are very happy together.
The wedding will take place at my parents mansion. The date is October 17, at 7oclock. I am so looking forward to introducing you to Alan, and he cant wait to meet you too. I told him all about you and our friendship.
With love,
Amy
نامه رسمی اداری
هر نامه ای غیر از چهار مورد ذکر شده فوق (شکایت نامه، درخواست اطلاعات، درخواست استخدام و شخصی)، یک نامه رسمی اداری است. این نامه ممکن است شامل توضیحات شما خطاب به یک کتابخانه در مورد کتابهایی باشد که هرگز پس داده نشده اند یا یک نامه به یک شرکت اجاره دهنده اتومبیل در مورد تصادفی که شما در آن نقشی داشته اید، باشد.
این نوع نامه ها دارای 4 پاراگراف به شرح زیر هستند:
1- شروع نامه با Dear Sir / Madam (یا با نام شخصی که در دستورالعمل سوال داده شده است) و توضیح کوتاهی در حد یک یا دو جمله در مورد اینکه شما چه کسی هستید و در مورد چه چیزی می نویسید:
"I am writing in regard to books I borrowed from the library on March 15, 2005 and never returned".
2- ذکر کردن جزئیات بیشتری در مورد منظورتان از نوشتن این نامه. به ایده ای که دستورالعمل سوال به شما داده است فکر کنید و بر اساس آن بنویسید. علاوه بر ایده اصلی سوال، جزئیات جالب توجهی را نیز درست کنید. این پاراگراف باید بزرگترین پاراگراف در این نوع از نامه باشد.
3- پایان دهنده رسمی نامه را بنویسید، نام و امضاء خودتان را هم در آخر بنویسید:
I look forward to hearing from you.
اگر نام کسی که برایش می نویسید را می دانید، به این صورت امضاء کنید:
Yours sincerely,
John Smith
اگر نام کسی که برایش می نویسید را نمی دانید، به این صورت امضاء کنید:
Yours faithfully,
John Smith
مثالی از یک نامه رسمی اداری
Dear Sir/Madam,
I am writing to apologize about keeping books that I borrowed from the college library 3 days ago longer than it is acceptable. I have found myself in this unpleasant situation for a reason. My close relative was very sick and I had to go visit him at the hospital. I intended to return the books immediately after I get back to the college, but unfortunately I left the books on a train on my way from the hospital to the library. It will take me about two days to get them back from "Lost and Found" department at the train station.
I understand that other students may need those books and deeply apologize for the inconvenience. I will try to return the books as soon as possible. Please dont revoke my library privileges, I promise that it will never happen again.
Faithfully yours,
John Smith.
درست انجامش دهید!
حالا، وقتی شما میدانید که هر نوع از نامه ها چه شکلی باید داشته باشند، نوبت آن است که یاد بگیرید که چگونه آن را سریع بنویسید. این روش بطور کلی بر روی هر نوع از نامه قابل اجرا است. بعد از نوشتن چند نامه،‌ شما در خواهید یافت که چگونه 150 لغت را در مدت زمان 15 دقیقه بنویسید، به علاوه اینکه شما باید در مورد داستانی که در نامه تان میگویید هم فکر کنید که آنرا جالب کنید.
بنابراین این روشی است که شما چگونه آن را انجام دهید:
1- وقتی که به شما نوشتن نامه ای تکلیف می شود، ابتدا نگاه کنید و ببینید که چه نوع نامه ای لازم است بنویسید: شکایت، درخواست، اداری، درخواست شغلی یا نامه شخصی؟
2- تکلیف را بخوانید و روی کاغذ پیش نویس، 3 چیزی که بر اساس آن به ذهنتان می آیند را بنویسید. این ایده ها باید بطور مستقیم به عنوان داده شده ارتباط پیدا کنند و اگر از شما خواسته شده است که در مورد چیزهای مختلفی بنویسید، اینها باید به تک تک موارد خواسته شده رجوع کنند. آنها را با خلاقیت خودتان بسازید و لازم نیست که کاملاً واقعی باشند. سپس همینجا توقف کنید و در این مرحله، دیگر بیش از این فکر نکنید.
3- شروع به نوشتن کنید. اولین پاراگراف احتیاج به هیچ فکری ندارد. یکی دو جمله در مورد عنوان نامه خواسته شده تان بنویسید.
4- آیا 3 چیزی که به ذهنتان آمد را به خاطر دارید؟ از آنها در زمانی که مشغول نگارش دومین پاراگراف هستید، استفاده کنید. این پاراگراف را بزرگترین پاراگراف بسازید زیرا این پاراگراف، تنها شانس شما برای رسیدن به 150 لغت در نامه خواسته شده است.
5- وقتی پاراگراف دوم تمام شد، نوشتن پاراگرافهای سه و چهار (اگر کاربرد داشته باشد)، مانند آب خوردن خواهد بود زیرا آنها عموماً بر اساس پاراگراف دوم هستند.
6- وقتی نوشتن شما تمام شد، یکبار دیگر نامه را بخوانید و آن را از نظر اشتباهات در املاء صحیح کلمات و علامتگذاری چک کنید.
تمرین! تمرین! تمرین!
به عقیده من تمرین در نوشتن، یک ضرورت است. از عنوانهای زیر برای تمرین در نوشتن تا جائیکه می توانید بیشتر استفاده کنید. آنها همچنین به شما کمک می کنند که چگونه نامه های خواسته شده مختلف را دسته بندی کنید تا متوجه شوید که لازم است چه نوع نامه ای را بنویسید.
نمونه های عناوین خواسته شده برای:
- شکایت نامه:
Topic 1
You should spend no more than 20 minutes on this task and write at least 150 words.
You have bought a mobile phone in a tax-free shop just a few days ago, and it doesnt work properly. Task: Write a letter to the manager to complain about it and ask him to solve the problem.
You do not need to write your address. Begin your letter as follows: Dear Sir/Madam,
Topic 2
You should spend no more than 20 minutes on this task and write at least 150 words.
You rented a car from Car Rental Company. The air conditioner has stopped working. You phoned the company a week ago but it has still not been repaired. Write a letter to the company. In your letter

  • introduce yourself
  • explain the situation
  • say what action you would like the company to take
You do not need to write your address. Begin your letter as follows: Dear Sir/Madam,
- درخواست اطلاعات:
Topic 1
You should spend no more than 20 minutes on this task and write at least 150 words.
You are a student who wants to apply to Green Pines College. You are experiencing financial problems at the moment. Task: Write a letter to the Principal of the College, explaining your situation and ask for information on scholarships or other means of financial help available.
You do not need to write your address. Begin your letter as follows: Dear Sir/Madam,
Topic 2
You should spend no more than 20 minutes on this task and write at least 150 words.
You would like to participate in a work-related seminar in another country. Task: Write a letter to the person in charge of the seminar and ask for detailed information regarding the dates, program, accommodations and cost.
You do not need to write your address. Begin your letter as follows: Dear Sir/Madam,
- درخواست استخدام:
Topic 1
You should spend no more than 20 minutes on this task and write at least 150 words.
You want to apply for the following job. Write a letter to Mrs. Keller describing your previous experience and explaining why you would be suitable for the job.
Advertisement: Housekeeper required for private home. Experience is necessary. Contact Mrs. D. Keller.
You do not need to write your address. Begin your letter as follows: Dear Sir/Madam,
- نامه شخصی:
Topic 1
You should spend no more than 20 minutes on this task and write at least 150 words.
You stayed at your friends house when you participated in a business seminar in Australia. You left a file with important documents in your room. Task: Write a letter to your friend, describing the file and ask him/her to return it to you by post.
You do not need to write your address. Begin your letter as follows: Dear Sir/Madam,
Topic 2
You should spend no more than 20 minutes on this task and write at least 150 words.
You migrated to another country. Task: Write a letter to your friend to describe your present life and tell him/her why you choose this country.
You do not need to write your address. Begin your letter as follows: Dear Sir/Madam,
- نامه اداری و رسمی
Topic 1
You should spend no more than 20 minutes on this task and write at least 150 words.
You successfully passed a job interview. You are expected to start on November 15, but you will not be available on that date. Task: Write a letter to your new boss, explaining your situation, expressing your concern and suggesting solution.
You do not need to write your address. Begin your letter as follows: Dear Sir/Madam,
Topic 2
You should spend no more than 20 minutes on this task and write at least 150 words.
You are a gift shop keeper. Task: Write a letter to your supplier, to let him know that you wont need the merchandise you have ordered. Explain your situation and suggest solution.
You do not need to write your address. Begin your letter as follows: Dear Sir/Madam,
Topic 3
You should spend no more than 20 minutes on this task and write at least 150 words.
You are a secretary, planning a corporate event. Task: Write a letter to Entertainment Company explaining what kind of party you would like it to be, indicate date and time of event and your special requests.
You do not need to write your address. Begin your letter as follows: Dear Sir/Madam,
نکات Writing Task2 - انشاء
برای اینکه یک انشاء خوب بنویسید، لازم نیست یک نویسنده خوب باشید. این قسمت ممکن است سخت تر از نوشتن یک نامه به نظر برسد ولی این یک گمان و احساس اولیه است. فقط از قوانین موجود پیروی کنید، ساختار صحیح را بسازید، از "کلمات هوشمند" استفاده کنید و کمی تمرین کنید. با این روش شما می توانید به راحتی به حد درخواست شده برسید بدون اینکه عنوانی که از شما خواسته شده است، در این موضوع دخیل باشد و بعد از 40 دقیقه، شما 2 صفحه انشاء طولانی زیبایی را نوشته اید و در حالیکه لبخند بزرگی بر لب دارید، سالن امتحان را ترک می کنید.
ساختار انشاء
هر انشاء، باید ساختار خاص خودش را داشته باشد: مقدمه، بدنه و نتیجه گیری. ساختار خیلی مهم است زیرا امتیاز شما تحت تاثیر این موضوع قرار دارد. مقدمه معمولاً یک پاراگراف، بدنه، دو یا سه پاراگراف و نتیجه گیری هم یک پاراگراف را به خود اختصاص می دهند.
سه نوع مختلف از عناوین انشاء
فقط سه نوع مختلف از انشاء در IELTS وجود دارد که اجازه دهید آنها را A و H و S بنامیم.
نوع A نمایانگر Argument (بحث) است که از شما می خواهد در آن در خصوص موافقت یا مخالفت خودتان بر اساس دلایلی که فقط در یک سو (موافقت یا مخالفت) بیان می کنید، بنویسید.
نوع H نمایانگر Hidden Argument (بحث مخفی) است که معمولاً از شما می پرسند: "به چه اندازه ای؟"، "از چه راهی؟"، "چگونه ... تغییر کرده است؟"
نوع S نمایانگر موقعیت و وضعیت (Situation) است که احتیاج دارد شما به چرایی، چگونگی چیزی بپردازید و فرض کنید که در آینده چه روی خواهد داد و اگر مشکلاتی وجود دارند، در خصوص آنها پیشنهاداتی ارائه دهید.
مثالهای زیر، تفاوتهای بین این سه مدل را به شما نشان خواهند داد:
A: "Modern society benefits greatly from computer technology. However, becoming more dependent on computer has its disadvantages. Discuss threats of computers."
در مثال فوق، دو طرف بحث در خصوص معایب یا مزایای کامپیوتر وجود دارد
H: "To what extent should television participate in our childrens education?"
در مثال فوق، در واقع چیزی که پرسیده شده است، این است که آیا تلویزیون می تواند کودکان را آموزش دهد یا خیر؟
S: "Due to change of womens role in modern society, men are now the ones suffering from ***ual discrimination. Do you agree?"
در مثال فوق، شما توضیحی از یک موقعیت را می بینید و در مورد تفکر خودتان در این خصوص خواهید نوشت.
انشاء نوع Argument
1- پاراگراف مقدمه باید هر دو روی بحث را شرح دهد.
- هرگز عیناً عنوان خواسته شده در دستورالعمل و متن سوال را در مقدمه خود کپی نکنید، بلکه آن را با کلمات دیگر در مقدمه ذکر کنید.
- عقیده تان را در اینجا بیان نکنید و آن را برای بعد نگه دارید.
2- پاراگراف بدنه (حداقل دو پاراگراف) باید به هر دو سمت بحث ارجاع داشته باشد. اولین پاراگراف را در خصوص سمتی که شما با آن مخالفت دارید بنویسید و سمتی که شما با آن موافق هستید باید آخرین پاراگراف بدنه باشد چون بصورت طبیعی شما را به سوی نتیجه گیری سوق خواهد داد.
3- پاراگراف نتیجه گیری باید شامل خلاصه ای از دیدگاههایی که شما ساخته اید باشد. مهم نیست که این پاراگراف کوتاه باشد بلکه مهم این است که شما ساختار انشاء را رعایت کنید.
انشاء نوع Hidden
1- پاراگراف مقدمه باید سوال را تعریف کند. شما لازم است که بحث مخفی را روشن کنید. دوباره نویسی عنوانی که از شما خواسته شده است، برای شما مشخص خواهد کرد که واقعاً چه معنی می دهد:
From "to what extent something affects...?" to "Does something affect...?"
From "in what way something contributes?" to "does something contribute?"
From "how does something influence...?" to "does something influence ...?"
حالا این نوع انشاء به انشائی از نوع بحث با دو سمت تبدیل شده است و شما می توانید برای ادامه دادن آن، بر اساس انشاء نوع A با آن رفتار کنید.
انشاء نوع Situation
1- پاراگراف مقدمه باید موقعیت را شرح دهد و آن را توضیح دهد. نظر خود را در این پاراگراف بیان نکنید.
2- پاراگراف بدنه (حداقل دو پاراگراف) باید حاوی دلایلی باشد که نوشتار را به سمت وضعیت ذکر شده هدایت می کنند و هر پاراگراف باید شامل یک دلیل باشد.
3- پاراگراف نتیجه گیری باید خلاصه ای از نقطه نظرات موجود در انشاء باشد. اگر سوال از شما خواسته است که پیشنهاد یا راه حل هایی برای مسائل بیان کنید یا توصیه ها و پندهایی دارید، اینجا مکان آنهاست. اگر نظر شما نیز خواسته شده است، آن را هم باید در این پاراگراف بگنجانید.
توصیه های کلی
- مستقیماً در خصوص مطلبی که از شما خواسته شده است، بنویسید و به موضوعات دیگر منحرف نشوید.
- کلی گویی کنید و در مورد تجربیات شخصی خود چیزی ننویسید، اما در مورد چیزی که در دنیا اتفاق می افتد بنویسید.
- دستورالعمل سوال را بخوانید و در مورد هر چیز کوچکی که از شما خواسته شده است،‌ بنویسید. اگر در سوال از شما خواسته شده است که پیشنهاد یا راه حل ارائه دهید، آن را انجام دهید. همچنین اگر از شما خواسته شده است، توصیه ها و پندها را فراموش نکنید.
قدمهای اولیه برای انشاء
بعد از اینکه همه اینها را خواندید، هنوز ایده ای برای نوشتن ندارید. اجازه بدهید با هم آن را انجام دهیم:
قدم اول:
سوال را بخوانید و دسته بندی کنید. شما باید بتوانید تصمیم بگیرید که چه نوع انشائی از نوع A یا H یا S به شما داده شده است. این امر در راهی که باید برای طرح نوشتن انشاء انتخاب کنید تاثیر خواهد گذارد.
مثال:
"Home schooling belongs to the past and is unacceptable in the modern society. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? Use your own knowledge and experience and support your arguments with examples and relevant evidence"
ما به وضوح میتوانیم یک بحث مخفی را در اینجا ببینیم. با یادآوری کردن معنای واقعی عنوان، ما به این نتیجه خواهیم رسید:
"Is home schooling acceptable in modern society?"
از این راه، عنوان سوال به یک انشاء از نوع A تبدیل خواهد شد یعنی یک بحث با دو سمت موافق یا مخالف در خصوص "آموزش خانگی"
قدم دوم:
در اینجا شما باید ایده ها، افکار و عقایدتان را در مورد موضوع داده شده مطرح کنید. بهترین راه برای انجام این کار، این است که به چند ایده کلی فکر کنید و هر چیزی که در مورد این ایده ها به ذهنتان می رسد را یادداشت کنید. هر گاه شما با موضوعی از نوع A یا H روبرو شوید، این ایده ها در سمت مخالف بحث قرار دارند. اگر با موضوعی از نوع S روبرو هستید، دلایلی برای وضعیتی که وجود دارد (یا خواهد داشت) مطرح خواهند شد.
مثال:
اجازه بدهید بگوییم که بعد از مقداری فکر کردن، شما به ایده های زیر رسیده اید و نظر شما مخالف با آموزش در خانه است.
موافق:
- والدین، فرزندان خود را می شناسند.
- یادگیری لذت بخش تر خواهد بود.
- فرزندان احساس امنیت بیشتری دارند.
مخالف:
- شیوه علمی وجود نخواهد داشت (مانند یادگیری گروهی)
- همه والدین واجد شرایط نیستند.
- والدین دروس مربوطه را فراموش کرده اند.
حالا شما باید در مورد اینکه هر چیزی در کجای انشاء شما قرار بگیرد، فکر کنید. در همان صفحه پیش نویسی که عقاید و ایده هایتان را نوشته اید، آنها را گروه بندی کرده و تصمیم بگیرید که چه پاراگرافی چه ایده ای را توضیح خواهد داد. اگر انشاء از نوع A است، دقت داشته باشید که در خصوص مطالبی که شما با آنها موافق نیستید در ابتدا و بعد از آن در خصوص مطالبی که موافق هستید، بنویسید. فکر کنید که چگونه از یک پاراگراف به پاراگراف دیگر منتقل شوید. باید جملات منطقی وجود داشته باشند که شما را به پاراگراف بعدی انشایتان هدایت کنند.
مثال:
والدین، فرزندان خود را می شناسند: اولین پاراگراف بدنه - رویی که با آن موافق نیستید.
یادگیری لذت بخش تر خواهد بود: اولین پاراگراف بدنه - رویی که با آن موافق نیستید.
فرزندان احساس امنیت بیشتری دارند: اولین پاراگراف بدنه - رویی که با آن موافق نیستید.
شیوه علمی وجود ندارد: دومین پاراگراف بدنه - رویی که با آن موافق هستید.
یادگیری گروهی: دومین پاراگراف بدنه - رویی که با آن موافق هستید.
همه والدین واجد شرایط نیستند: سومین پاراگراف بدنه - رویی که با آن موافق هستید.
والدین دروس مربوطه را فراموش کرده اند: سومین پاراگراف بدنه - رویی که با آن موافق هستید.
قدم سوم:
حالا زمانی است که باید جواب را بنویسید. بر اساس طرحی که ریخته اید، انشاء خود را شروع کنید. اولین جمله از مقدمه ایده کلی انشاء را می دهد که هر دو روی بحث را نمایش می دهد یا اینکه موقعیت را توضیح می دهد. آخرین جمله از مقدمه باید به صورت طبیعی خواننده را به اولین جمله از بدنه هدایت کند. به خاطر داشته باشید که ساختار پاراگرافها و ارتباط آنها را با استفاده از کلمات ربطی رعایت کنید و سپس یک پاراگراف را به دیگری هدایت کنید.
نکته مهم: سعی کنید که پاراگراف بدنه را با یک کلمه ربط (مثل به هر حال، بنابراین، علاوه بر این، با این وجود یا مانند اینها) شروع کنید که نمره شما را افزایش دهد.
مثال:
این انشائی است که بر اساس ایده هایی که شما مطرح کرده اید، نوشته شده است. برای درک بهتر، ایده ها با حروف درشت تر از بقیه مشخص شده اند.
Everything has two sides and home schooling is not an exception. In the past it seemed like the most natural way of educating the children, but today many people criticize it.
We must acknowledge that parents know their children best. That gives them a good chance of knowing how to make child understand certain concepts. Using childs interests, parents can make a process of learning more enjoyable and effective. In addition, being at home makes child feel safe, which contributes to his ability to concentrate on studying.
Nevertheless, many people believe that teaching should be done by professionals. There are many provenscientific approaches that produce good results and without those techniques parents who teach their kids at home have no chance of success. Associative learning is a good example of such a technique. Showing the child images while learning the alphabet (apple for "a", boy for "b") makes him or her remember the letters faster and easier.
Also not every parent is capable of teaching his or her child at home because the blind cannot lead the blind.Parents cannot teach the children something they dont know themselves, and lets face it - not all of us have profound knowledge of history or geography even on a school textbook level. Eventually, even those mums and dads who had succeeded at school could forget the material as the time went by.
In conclusion, I have more trust in abilities and experience of professional teachers then I do in my own.
و در آخر انشاء را از ابتدا بصورت دقیق بخوانید و اشتباهات آنرا بررسی کنید.
40 دقیقه،‌ کافی نیست؟
تقریباً هیچکس نمی تواند اولین انشاء خود را به موقع تمام کند. لذا اگر انشاء شما یک ساعت یا حتی بیشتر زمان برد، نا امید نشوید. اول سعی کنید که به قدمهای اولیه انشاء عادت کنید. بعد از کمی تمرین، شما انشاءهایتان را سریعتر و سریعتر خواهید نوشت و بالاخره به هدفتان که نوشتن انشاء در 40 دقیقه است، خواهید رسید. شما باید همواره با کمک یک "ساعت" کار کنید و این تنها راهی است که پیشرفتتان را مورد بررسی قرار دهید.
جملات مفید
معمولاً برای افرادی که به طور روزانه به زبان انگلیسی نمیخوانند و نمی نویسند، بیان مطلب در انشاء سخت خواهد بود. لذا در ادامه، یک لیست از جملاتی را که به شما کمک می کنند تا زیباتر بنویسید را آورده ام:
برای بیان دو روی یک بحث:

  • "Some people prefer .... Those who disagree point out that..."
  • "We must acknowledge ... Nevertheless, ..."
  • "No one can deny ... However, ..."
  • "Many people hold the opinion... Others, however, disagree..."
  • "Although it is hard to compete with ..., some people still prefer ..."
برای ربط:

  • "Not only..., but..."
  • "Also
  • "Furthermore,"
  • "In addition,"
  • "Moreover,"
برای نفی گفتار قبلی:

  • "Although..."
  • "However,"
  • "Nevertheless,"
  • "Even if..."
  • "In spite of"
  • "On the other hand"
برای بیان مثال:

  • "For example,"
  • "For instance,"
  • "In particular,"
  • "..., such as"
  • "To illustrate ..."
برای دلیل آوردن:

  • "As a result"
  • "Therefore"
  • "Thus"
  • "So"
  • "Eventually"
برای نتیجه گیری:

  • "Lastly,"
  • "Finally,"
  • "To conclude with,"
  • "In short,"
  • "In conclusion,"
تمرین! تمرین! تمرین!
توصیه من این است که روی انشاء تا جایی که می توانید تمرین کنید. هدف شما این است که توانایی نوشتن یک انشاء 250 کلمه ای را در 40 دقیقه بر اساس موضوع خواسته شده را داشته باشید. عنوان موضوع مهم نیست، مهم این است که شما تکنیکی که یاد گرفته اید را انجام بدهید و اجرا کنید. برای آنهایی که فرصت ندارند، موضوعاتی شبیه به آنچه در آزمون IELTS به شما داده خواهد شد را آورده ام. با ساعت تمرین کنید و لغات را بشمارید.
Topic 1
You are advised to spend the maximum of 40 minutes on this task.
Even though globalization affects the worlds economics in a very positive way, its negative side should not be forgotten. Discuss.
You should write at least 250 words.
Topic 2
You are advised to spend the maximum of 40 minutes on this task.
Some people say that education system is the only critical factor to development of a country. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
You should write at least 250 words.
Topic 3
You are advised to spend the maximum of 40 minutes on this task.
Dieting can change a persons life for the better or ruin ones health completely. What is your opinion?
You should write at least 250 words.
Topic 4
You are advised to spend the maximum of 40 minutes on this task.
Financial education should be mandatory component of the school program. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
You should write at least 250 words.
Topic 5
You are advised to spend the maximum of 40 minutes on this task.
The best way to reduce the number of traffic accidents is to raise age limit for the younger drivers and lower age limit for the aged ones. Do you agree?
You should write at least 250 words.
Topic 6
You are advised to spend the maximum of 40 minutes on this task.
Ecological balance is impossible to archive when technological progress constantly ruins our environment. Do you agree?

You should write at least 250 words.


منبع
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واکنش ها: Sima

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نکات آزمون Writing آیلتس بخش اول

نکات آزمون Writing آیلتس بخش اول



استاد حامد رفیعی فوق لیسانس زبان انگلیسی و دارنده مدرک Delta و Celta از دانشگاه کمبریج انگلستان

اشاره: توضیحات مفید و شفاف در مورد بخش اول امتحان رایتینگ

[SUP]THE FREE IELTS ACADEMIC WRITING TEST - TASK 1 TUTORIAL

The IELTS Academic Task 1 Writing is not an easy part of the exam. Describing a graph well in 20 minutes is not something most people can do straight away whether they are English speakers or not. The fact that it is in a foreign language for you as well doesn't help. Practice is the magic word though. Even good English users need practice for the IELTS exam and it could mean all the difference between pass and fail. There is limited practice available and it's quite expensive. That's why we would recommend you download our practice material. You will get more practice for less money. Go to the Home Page to find more information about our Practice Tests and other Practice Tests available.[/SUP]
[SUP]
The Task

Basically the IELTS Academic Task 1 Writing is an information transfer task related to the factual content of an input text(s), graph(s), table(s) or diagram(s). It can be combinations of these inputs. Usually you will have to describe the information given in 1, 2 or 3 three inputs but sometimes you have will have to describe a process shown in a diagram.[/SUP]
[SUP]
Marking for the IELTS Academic Task 1 Writing

The IELTS Academic Task 1 Writing will be marked in four areas. You will get a mark from 1 to 9 on Task Achievement, Coherence & Cohesion, Lexical Resource and Grammatical Range and Accuracy. Your final band for task 1 will be effectively an average of the four marks awarded in these areas. Task 1 writing is less important than task 2 and to calculate the final writing mark, more weight is assigned to the task 2 mark than to task 1's mark. To get a good overall mark for The IELTS Academic Task 1 Writing though, both tasks have to be well answered so don't hold back on task 1 or give yourself too little time to answer it properly.

Task Achievement This where you can really make a difference through careful preparation. This mark grades you on basically "have you answered the question". It marks whether you have covered all requirements of the task suffiently and whether you presented, highlighted and illustrate the key points appropriately.

Coherence and Cohesion These two are interrelated which is why they are done together. Cohesion is how your writing fits together. Does your writing with its ideas and content flow logically? Coherence is how you are making yourself understood and whether the reader of your writing understands what you are saying. An example of bad coherence and cohesion would be as follows:

1 We went to the beach because it was raining.

Probably the writer of this sentence does not mean "because" as people don't usually go to the beach when it is raining. The writer should have written:

2 We went to the beach although it was raining.

Sentence 1 has made a cohesion and coherence error (as well as a vocabulary one). "Because" does not join the ideas of the sentence together correctly and, as a result, the reader does not understand what the writer wants to say. This is an exaggerated example but it shows what I mean. Good cohesion and coherence is not noticeable as it allows the writing to be read easily. Good cohesion and coherence also includes good and appropriate paragraph usage.

Lexical Resource This area looks at the your choice of words. The marker will look at whether the right words are used and whether they are used at the right time in the right place and in the right way. To get a good mark here, the word choice should not only be accurate but wide ranging, natural and sophisticated.

Grammatical Range and Accuracy Here the examiner will mark your appropriate, flexible and accurate use of grammatical structures. Many people are worried about their grammar but, as you can see, grammar is only one section of four used to grade your writing. IELTS is much more interested in communication rather than grammatical accuracy. It is, of course, still part of the marking scheme and important as such.[/SUP]

[SUP]
Paragraphing for the IELTS Academic Task 1 Writing

This is a very easy thing to do but it can have an enormous effect on the intelligibility of your writing and, of course, good use of paragraphing is part of the marking under the section Coherence and Cohesion. Very often people use no paragraphing in The IELTS Academic Task 1 Writing and the examiner is faced with a "sea" of writing with no breaks from start to finish. For me, the best writings are those where there are paragraphs separated by an empty line and also indented. In this way your ideas are separated clearly. It shows and gives organization to your writing and makes it more readable. For the IELTS Academic Task 1 Writing, you should have a paragraph for your small introduction, a paragraph for each graph that you are describing and a paragraph for your ending. If there's only one graph to be described, then you should split your writing into 2 or maybe 3 paragraphs for the one graph.

For a longer section on paragraphing and how useful it can be, see Academic Writing Task 2 Tutorial.[/SUP]
[SUP]
Scales for the IELTS Academic Task 1 Writing

What I mean by the scale is whether the graphs are marked in hundreds, thousands, millions, pounds, dollars (US, Canadian, Australian, New Zealand, etc.), kilograms, tons, meters, kilometers, percent and so on. It's important for you to make clear what your numbers mean for an accurate report of the graph. Don't just say that something costs 1000 for instance. Say it costs 1000 US dollars. You can either specify the scales at the start in your introduction so the reader knows it for the whole report or you can use the scale each time you quote a detail in the report.[/SUP]
[SUP]
Writing the Task for The IELTS Academic Task 1 Writing

The Introduction

You don't need much here. You only have 150 words to fully answer the question and this is not much. So, you need 1 or 2 sentences describing the following:
The type(s) of graph you are describing
The titles of the graph(s)
The date of the graph(s)
The scale (see the paragraph above)

You might not have all this information but you should report what you do have. So, for example, your beginning could look like this:

In this report I am going to describe 2 graphs. The first one is a bar chart showing the relationship between age and crime and the second is a pie chart showing the types of reported crime in the UK in 2002.[/SUP]
[SUP]
Describing Graphs for The IELTS Academic Task 1 Writing

What you need to do here is factually describe the graphs. You don't need to analyse the data, For example you don't need to give reasons for why figures are high or low. Sometimes, when there is more than 1 graph, there is a relationship between the two and you can bring in some comparison but more than this is not necessary. In the same way, no specialized knowledge of your own is needed or wanted nor your opinions.

Remember the function of many graphs is to describe a trend so be sure that you describe the trends. A trend is how values change generally over time and it is important to describe the changes along with some of the individual values. We will look at trends a bit later under line graphs.

One important issue with The IELTS Academic Task 1 Writing is how much detail to include in your report. This depends really on how much detail there is in the question. If there is only 1 graph and it doesn't have much numerical data in it, then you will be expected to include all or nearly all of the numerical detail. If, however, you have 2 graphs, both of which are very complicated with lots of values, you will not be expected to include everything as you only have 150 words to do the job. What you will have to do is to include a selection of what you feel is the most important and significant detail that needs to be included to accurately describe the graph.

You must always have some numerical detail though.

Now let's look individually at the types of graph that you are likely to meet in the exam and how to describe them.[/SUP]
[SUP]
Bar Charts for The IELTS Academic Task 1 Writing

Hopefully you will have described the title of the bar chart in your introduction so you can go straight into the description. Basically, with a bar chart, you need to describe the bars and their values. When describing a bar chart you first have to decide in what order to describe the bars, highest value to lowest value or lowest value to highest value. It may be a mixture of this. If there are very many bars, you can sometimes group together for description 1 or 2 or 3 bars which have similar or the same values. If there are very many and you can't group them, then just describe the ones that are the most significant.[/SUP]
[SUP]
Pie Charts for The IELTS Academic Task 1 Writing

Pie charts are relatively straightforward as they only usually have a few sections though this is not always the case. You need to describe the segments and their values. If there are very many then just describe the ones that are the most significant. The values are often expressed in percentages but not always so be careful what scale you are using.[/SUP]
[SUP]
Tables for The IELTS Academic Task 1 Writing

These can sometimes be tricky as they provide a lot of information and it is often awkward and difficult to describe every piece of information. You have to decide and describe the values and sections that are the most significant.[/SUP]
[SUP]
Line Graphs for The IELTS Academic Task 1 Writing

The function of a line graph is to describe a TREND pictorially. You therefore should try and describe the trend in it. If there are many lines in the graph(s), then just generally describe the trend. If there is only one or two, then use more detail. So, describe the movement of the line(s) of the graph giving numerical detail at the important points of the line.

To describe the movement, there is some language which will always be useful. Below is a list of language you can use. Check with your dictionary words that you don't understand and practice using the words/phrases so you use them in the right way. As you will see, there are a number of words which are similar in meaning. This means that you will be able to use a variety of vocabulary which gives a good impression to the examiner who will read and mark your writing. The words below are particularly useful for line graphs but they can also be used where appropriate to describe the other types of graph.[/SUP]
[SUP]
Expressing the Movement of a Line Verbs Nouns

Rise (to) a rise
Increase (to) an increase
Go up to
Grow (to) growth
Climb (to) a climb
Boom a boom
Peak (at) (reach) a peak (at)

Fall (to) a fall (of)
Decline (to) a decline (of)
Decrease (to) a decrease (of)
Dip (to) a dip (of)
Drop (to) a drop (of)
Go down (to)
Reduce (to) a reduction (of)
A slump

Level out a leveling out
No change no change
Remain stable (at)
Remain steady (at)
Stay (at)
Stay constant (at)
Maintain the same level

Adjectives Adverbs

Dramatic dramatically
Sharp sharply
Huge hugely
Enormous enormously
Steep steeply
Substantial substantially
Considerable considerably
Significant significantly
Marked markedly
Moderate moderately
Slight slightly
Small
Minimal minimally

Describing the Speed of a Change

Adjectives Adverbs

Rapid rapidly
Quick quickly
Swift swiftly
Sudden suddenly
Steady steadily
Gradual gradually
Slow slowly

The Ending for the IELTS Academic Task 1 Writing

You do not need a long and analytical conclusion for The IELTS Academic Task 1 Writing, but I do feel that you need to write something to end the report for reasons of structure. All you need to do is to write:

This ends my report.

This is all you need to end your Task 1; I think it's important to do this as it rounds off the report for the reader.[/SUP]
[SUP]
Describing a Process for the IELTS Academic Task 1 Writing

We have looked at the various types of graph that you might be asked to describe but you also might have to describe a diagram representing a process.
First of all, the introduction and the ending should be more or less the same.

Then, work out the various stages of the process. Take each one separately (it's only probably going to have a limited number of stages) and describe them fully. Fully is the important word as reaching the word limit has proved harder in this task. If you have this problem, don't be afraid to use your imagination to add to detail about the process.[/SUP]
[SUP]
Other Hints for the IELTS Academic Task 1 Writing[/SUP]
[SUP]
DON'T copy any part of the question in your answer. This is not your own work and therefore will be disregarded by the examiner and deducted from the word count. You can use individual words but be careful of using long "chunks" of the question text.
Don't repeat yourself or the same ideas. This gives a bad impression and the examiner realises that it isn't adding to the content of your report.
If you are weak at English grammar, try to use short sentences. This allows you to control the grammar and the meaning of your writing much more easily and contributes to a better cohesion and coherence mark. It's much easier to make things clear in a foreign language if you keep your sentences short!
Think about the tenses of your verbs. If you're writing about something that happened in the past, your verbs will need to be in the past tenses. If you're describing the future, you will need to use the future tenses. If it's a habitual action, you'll need the present simple tense and so on. If you have time, a quick check of your verbs at the end of the exam can help you find errors. For describing graphs you will probably need past tenses whereas, for describing a process, you will probably need the present simple. Think about the verbs while practising and then it will become easier when you do the exam.
As I just said, if you have finished the exam with time to spare, DON'T just sit there!! Check what you have done. If you have time after the check, check again. And so on....
Don't be irrelevant. Although you can use your imagination to expand on your answer, if any part of your report is totally unrelated to the question and put in to just put up the word count, then the examiner will not take it into account and deduct it from the word count.
If you want to improve, there's no secret. Practice. Practice. Practice. You won't get better sitting and doing nothing. Even good English users need practice for the IELTS exam. It could make all the difference between your getting the band that you need, and getting half a band less than you need and having to do the exam again.

Finally, there are no correct answers or methods. Here I've given you some ideas to guide you and hopefully to help you but the questions can be answered well in different ways. Good luck with the IELTS Academic Task 1 Writing. I hope that this free tutorial has helped you!

[/SUP]
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واکنش ها: Sima

Persia1

مدیر تالار زبان انگلیسی
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نکات آزمون Writing آیلتس بخش دوم

نکات آزمون Writing آیلتس بخش دوم



استاد حامد رفیعی فوق لیسانس زبان انگلیسی و دارنده مدرک Delta و Celta از دانشگاه کمبریج انگلستان

اشاره: نکات بسیار مهم و کلیدی در مورد امتحان رایتینگ تسک 2 که به زبان انگلیسی نوشته شده و به تشریح کلیه مطالب آن می پردازد.

THE IELTS ACADEMIC WRITING TEST - TASK 2 TUTORIAL

Task 2 in the IELTS Academic Writing Test is more important than task 1. You have to write more, it's a more difficult task and it is worth more to your final band for writing as more weight is given to Task 2 than to Task 1.

The IELTS Academic Writing Test

The IELTS Academic Writing Test lasts for 1 hour and includes 2 tasks. Task 1 is a letter and you must write at least 150 words. You should spend about 20 minutes out of the hour for Task 1. Task 2 is an essay and you must write at least 250 words. You should spend about 40 minutes for Task 2.

The Task for the IELTS Academic Task 2 Writing

The IELTS Academic Writing Task 2 asks you to write a short essay of a minimum of 250 words. The essay is usually a discussion of a subject of general interest. You may have to present and justify your opinion about something, give the solution to a problem or compare differing ideas or viewpoints.

Marking for the IELTS Academic Task 2 Writing

Your task will be marked in four areas. You will get a mark from 1 to 9 on Task response, Coherence and Cohesion, Lexical Resource and Grammatical Range and Accuracy. Your final band for Task 2 will be effectively an average of the four marks awarded in these areas. Task 2 writing is more important than Task 1 and to calculate the final writing mark, more weight is assigned to the Task 2 mark than to Task 1's mark. To get a good overall mark though, both tasks have to be well answered so don't hold back on Task 1 or give yourself too little time to answer it properly.


Task Response

This mark grades you on the content of your essay. It marks whether you have fully addressed all parts of task. The examiner wants you in your essay to have a fully developed answer to the question given with relevent and extended ideas and support. The support is the facts that you use to back up your ideas. Support is very important in Task 2. You need to bring in facts from your own experience in order to support your ideas.

Coherence and Cohesion

These two are interrelated which is why they are done together. Cohesion is how your writing fits together. Does your writing with its ideas and content flow logically? Coherence is how you are making yourself understood and whether the reader of your writing understands what you are saying. An example of bad coherence and cohesion would be as follows:

1 ) We went to the beach because it was raining.

Probably the writer of this sentence does not mean "because" as people don't usually go to the beach when it is raining. The writer should have written:

2 ) We went to the beach although it was raining.

Sentence 1 has made a cohesion and coherence error (as well as a vocabulary one). "Because" does not join the ideas of the sentence together correctly and, as a result, the reader does not understand what the writer wants to say. This is an exaggerated example but it shows what I mean. Good cohesion and coherence is not noticeable as it allows the writing to be read easily. Good cohesion and coherence also includes good and appropriate paragraph usage.

Lexical Resource

This area looks at the your choice of words. The marker will look at whether the right words are used and whether they are used at the right time in the right place and in the right way. To get a good mark here, the word choice should not only be accurate but wide ranging, natural and sophisticated.

Grammatical Range and Accuracy

Here the examiner will mark your appropriate, flexible and accurate use of grammatical structures. Many people are worried about their grammar but, as you can see, grammar is only one section of four used to grade your writing. IELTS is much more interested in communication rather than grammatical accuracy. It is, of course, still part of the marking scheme and important as such.

Paragraphing for the IELTS Academic Task 2 Writing

This is a very easy thing to do but it can have an enormous effect on the clarity of your writing and it directly affects your mark in the section on Coherence and Cohesion. I have said this for Task 1 but for Task 2 it's is even more important. In Task 2 you will be writing more and it is therefore more important to divide your writing up into divisions to make it easier to read.

Very often people use no paragraphing and the examiner is faced with a "sea" of writing with no breaks from start to finish. For me, the best writings are those where there are paragraphs separated by an empty line and also indented. In this way your ideas are separated clearly. It shows and gives organization to your writing and makes it more readable.

For Task 2, have a paragraph break after your introduction, and then for every differing section of your separate ideas with the supporting evidence. Then have a final paragraph for your conclusion. You should aim to have 3 or 4 paragraphs plus the introduction and conclusion.

Look at this section on paragraphing. It is divided into 5 separate paragraphs dividing the 5 different areas that I want to present to you, the reader. The 5 areas are:

Paragraph 1 Why paragraphing is important for Task 2.
Paragraph 2 How to divide your paragraphing.
Paragraph 3 Where your paragraph divisions should occur.
Paragraph 4 The division of paragraphs in this section.
Paragraph 5 Explaining the comparison with this section and the one below to show how paragraphing can work.

Below I will repeat paragraphs 1 - 4 of this section on paragraphing but I am going to remove all the paragraphs and line breaks and make it a "sea of writing" as I said can happen above. I hope you feel that this section is easier to understand than the one below!! (By the way, I haven't used line breaks through this entire tutorial as there would be too many and it would be too confusing).

Paragraphing (bad example section)

This is a very easy thing to do but it can have an enormous effect on the clarity of your writing. I have said this for Task 1 but for Task 2 it's is even more important. In Task 2 you will be writing more and it is therefore more important to divide your writing up into divisions to make it easier to read. Very often people use no paragraphing and the examiner is faced with a "sea" of writing with no breaks from start to finish. For me, the best writings are those where there are paragraphs separated by an empty line and also indented. In this way your ideas are separated clearly. It shows and gives organization to your writing and makes it more readable. For Task 2, have a paragraph break after your introduction, and then for every differing section of your separate ideas with the evidence. Then have a final paragraph for your conclusion. You should aim to have 3 or 4 paragraphs plus the introduction and conclusion. Look at this section on paragraphing. It is divided into 4 separate paragraphs dividing the 4 different areas that I want to present to you the reader. The 4 areas are: Paragraph 1: Why paragraphing is important for task 2: Paragraph 2: How to divide your paragraphing. Paragraph 3: Where your paragraph divisions should occur. Paragraph 4: An example to show you how paragraphing works.

I hope you feel that the first section was easier to understand
than this second one!!
Ideas to Think About for the IELTS Academic Task 2 Writing

1 Timing

The exam paper recommends that you spend about 40 minutes on this question and this is about right. Remember that Task 2 gives more to your final writing band and so you should make sure that you have enough time after Task 1 to properly answer Task 2. Some students do Task 2 first in order to make sure that Task 2 is answered well before they get onto Task 1. There is no problem with this but make sure you write the 150 words to give a good answer for Task 1 as well.


So, whatever you decide to do about your approach to Task 1 and Task 2 in the writing paper, make sure that you spend approximately 20 minutes on Task 1 and 40 minutes on Task 2. This should give you the right amount of time to provide good answers to both tasks.

2 Answering the question.

Although this sounds very straightforward, people don't often properly answer the question set and therefore don't get the band that they should even if the writing is very good.

First of all read the question very carefully in order to see exactly what it asks you. Very often there will be more than 1 part to the question; sometimes even 3 or 4 parts. When you produce your answer you must answer all the different parts of the question. How much you produce on each part depends on how important you think it is.

You have to write a formal academic English essay of the type that would be required for teachers or tertiary education courses. Formulate and develop an argument and show a personal response. Give your opinions and back them up with evidence and examples. Your answer should persuade, be consistent and develop logically towards a conclusion, which answers all parts of the question.

Another important basic is to write at least 250 words. Writing less does not answer the question, which tells you to write at least 250 words. If you write less than 250 words, the examiner marking your paper will give you a maximum of 5 for Arguments, Ideas and Evidence or even less. It is no problem to write more than the 250 words; there is no upward word limit on the essay. Time is your only constraint.

The question wants you to produce an essay. Therefore don't give a list of numbered notes (your paragraphs should not be numbered). Give the examiner a proper essay with an introduction, a main body with your ideas and evidence and a conclusion, all divided of course with the paragraphing techniques discussed above.

3 Planning

Many students that I have taught have regarded writing an essay plan as a waste of time. The only answer I can give is that it depends on the individual. If you are a good essay writer who can automatically organize your ideas and structure in your head so well that you can produce a good structured essay without planning, then I say that's it's fine not to write an essay plan.


Also if you're really short of time and you need to get writing on page, then you don't want to waste time on planning. However, if none of these conditions apply, then 1 or 2 minutes thinking about your ideas and how you are going to present them will not be wasted. I'm not saying that you should spend 10 minutes on this. Just take a scrap of paper and jot down some ideas that you are going to use in your essay.

Then you can divide the ideas into 3 or 4 paragraphs in a logical order. This shouldn't take you long and the structure that this will give your essay will be well worth the time that you spend doing it.

Writing The Essay in the IELTS Academic Task 2 Writing

1 The Introduction

First of all, don't repeat any part of the question in your introduction. This is not your own work and therefore will be disregarded by the examiner and deducted from the word count. You can use individual words but be careful of using "chunks" of the question text.

Your introduction should first say what you understand by the question. Then give the main issue or issues that you intend to bring into your answer. Don't go into any detail; you can save that for the later paragraphs.

Finally, the question often asks you to take up a position over an issue. There is no right answer for putting your views at the start and then explaining this through the essay, or developing your opinion though your essay and stating your final stance at the end. I personally like the opinion at the start of the essay. Quickly and clearly answer the question, making your attitude plain. Don't give any reasons. Again, that's what the body of your essay is for. You don't have to do it this way though. You can wait until your conclusion to give your position as regards the question.

2 The Body of Your Essay

You should aim to have 3 or 4 paragraphs in your answer. This is not exact. You can write more or fewer paragraphs, as your answer requires. Remember you've only got about 40 minutes to cover all the question areas so don't be too ambitious and try to write too much.

In the body of your essay you should do several things. You need to examine all parts of the question. Remember there is often more than 1 question contained in the essay question text. You need to look at all that is asked and look at both sides of every issue. IELTS essay questions usually ask you something which has two or more points of view, and you need to consider both sides of every argument no matter what your opinion is.

Look below at the example. The question asks whether or not you believe whether societies should use capital punishment. There are, of course, two points of view:

(1) capital punishment should be used and

(2) capital punishment shouldn't be used.

Let's say for example that you don't believe that capital punishment should be used by societies. No matter what point of view you have, you should look at both sides, though naturally your writing will favor the position that you have taken. Give the reasons why you don't believe in capital punishment but then look at the opposing view and say why you don't accept it. In this way you will show the reader your powers of analysis when looking at such an issue.

Don't forget that when you have finished looking at this issue there is a second part of the question to be analyzed too.

As we said earlier, your ideas need to be supported by examples and it is in the body of your essay that they should appear. For every idea that you present try and give an example from your own experience that shows that your idea is right.

An example from your own experience means something that you know from your life, from your country's news or history or anything that you have read anywhere. You can actually invent examples if you need as long as they seem realistic and believable. The examiner is probably not going to research anything you write about.

The example below should illustrate what we have been discussing here.

3 The Conclusion

This doesn't need to be a long paragraph. You need to sum up your points providing a final perspective on your topic. All the conclusion needs is three or four strong sentences, which do not need to follow any set formula. Simply review the main points (being careful not to restate them exactly or repeat all your examples) and briefly describe your feelings about the topic; this provides an answer to all parts of the question. An anecdote can also finish your essay in a useful way.

An Example of the IELTS Academic Task 2 Writing

It's very difficult to visualize and understand all the things that I have said above.
Here I will try and provide you with an example question and then go through the stages of thought to show you how to approach an IELTS Task 2 essay.

Here is a possible question that would be typical for a Task 2 essay question.

"Do you believe that societies ought to enforce capital punishment or Are there alternative forms of punishment that would be better used?"

First of all you need to consider the question. What does it ask? Straight away, you can see that it asks 2 things.

It wants to know if you believe that society should use capital punishment and it also wants to know if you can offer any alternatives to capital punishment. Your answer should give a balanced view of both parts of this question. What is important to realize is that there is no correct answer here. You can present any point of view as long as you can support it.

So, in your planning stage you should have a roadmap for the introduction, each paragraph and the conclusion. Here is my brief plan for the essay.

Intro

What cp is. Where it's used. (not my country). Differing opinions.
I don't believe in cp.
There are alternative punishments.

Body

Inhumane - we shouldn't sink to the level of criminals.

We can get convictions wrong; prisoners can be released if there's an error. Mentally ill. Examples.

Alternative punishments: life means life; hospitals for criminally insane. Costs more but society has a duty to care.

Many countries favour it and they say it works. Prisons too full. Killers deserve nothing less. Some crimes deserve it. Not my morals though.

Conclusion

I don't agree. We can do other things. Avoid mistakes and make modern society a humane one.

The above is a basic plan of how I want to write my essay. It's not rigid. I can change my ideas and format as I write if I feel I can do better.

I can also add things that I've forgotten as the essay goes on. It's normal of course for you to have new, good ideas as you write and the skill is to get them into your essay without upsetting the balance of the essay. How do you do this? It's practice again. You won't get good at writing essays and adapting your writing well without practice.

So, below is an example essay using the plan above as a basis.
Example Essay for the IELTS Academic Task 2 Writing

Capital punishment is the killing of a criminal for a crime that he has committed. Previously most countries employed this method of punishment but nowadays it is much less widely used. I personally do not believe that societies today should use capital punishment and I also believe that there are alternative punishments that can be used.

My main argument against capital punishment is that I believe we do not have the right to kill another human being regardless of the crime. I don't believe in the old religious maxim of "an eye for an eye." Modern societies shouldn't turn to such barbaric punishments.

Another argument against capital punishment is that people can be wrongly convicted and executed. If a man is in prison, he can be released if later proved not guilty. If he is dead, there is nothing that can be done. In the UK, a group of supposed terrorists were convicted of murder in Birmingham in the 1970s. They were proved innocent about 15 years later and released. If they had been executed, innocent people would have died.

There are alternative punishments available. For bad crimes prison life sentences can be given with criminals imprisoned for the rest of their lives. Also a lot of horrific crimes are committed by people who are mentally sick. These people are not responsible for their actions and can be kept safely and permanently in secure hospitals. Yes, this costs a lot more but I believe it is the duty of society to do this.

There are arguments for capital punishment. Many people feel its threat stops serious crime and that criminals deserve nothing less. It's cheaper and keeps the prisons manageable. I can understand this point of view but I cannot agree with it.

So, in conclusion, I don't believe in capital punishment, as there are less barbaric alternatives available. We can avoid horrific mistakes and make modern society a humane one.

Final Comment for the IELTS Academic Task 2 Writing

I hope that this essay shows how to approach the Task 2 question and illustrates the ideas that I have written above.

Finally I will leave you with the message that I always do. To really improve your skills at writing essays, you need to practice. Get some essay titles, sit down when you get the chance, give yourself 40 minutes and write some essays. Try and do it as I have directed with a couple of minutes for planning, as this will train you to make a better-constructed essay in the long run.


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Persia1

مدیر تالار زبان انگلیسی
مدیر تالار
نمودار میله ای رایتینگ آکادمیک به همراه حل آن

نمودار میله ای رایتینگ آکادمیک به همراه حل آن

استاد حامد رفیعی دکتری ادبیات انگلیسی و نویسنده کتاب رایتینگ آیلتس

اشاره: در این بخش نمونه ای دیگر از نمودارهای میله ای را به شما خواهیم آموخت.

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.​
The barchart below shows the total number of minutes (in billions) of telephone calls in
Australia, divided into three categories, from 2001- 2008. Summarise the information by
selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words​
model answer:
The chart shows the time spent by Australian resident on different types of telephone calls
between 2001 and 2008.
Local fixed line calls were the highest throughout the period, rising from 72 billion minutes
in 2001 to just under 90 billion in 2003. After peaking at 90 billion the following year, these
calls had fallen back to the 2001 figure by 2008.
National and international fixed line calls grew steadily from 38 billion to 61 billion at end of
the period in question, though the growth slowed over the last two years.
There was a dramatic increase in mobile calls from 2 billion to 46 billion minutes. This rise was
particularly noticeable between 2005 and 2008, during which time the use of mobile phones
tripled.
To sum up, although local fixed line calls were still most popular in 2008, the gap between
the three categories had narrowed considerably over the second half of the period in
question.
(157 words)


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سرزمین زبان
 
آخرین ویرایش:

Persia1

مدیر تالار زبان انگلیسی
مدیر تالار
نمونه ای از رایتینگ آکادمیک بخش اول نمره 9

نمونه ای از رایتینگ آکادمیک بخش اول نمره 9

استاد حامد رفیعی دکتری ادبیات انگلیسی و نویسنده کتاب رایتینگ آیلتس

اشاره:

در این نمونه رایتینگ سعی شده است که بخش مهمی از رایتینگ آکادمیک به همراه حل آن به شما ارائه شود.

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The diagram below shows the production of steam using a gas cooled nuclear reactor.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make
comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.​

model answer:

A gas-cooled nuclear reactor consists of the reactor itself and a heat exchanger. The reactor contains
uranium fuel elements which are surrounded by graphite moderators and topped by charge tubes for
loading fuel elements, and boron control rods. The whole reactor is contained in a pressure vessel
surrounded by a concrete shield.

From the reactor the hot gas flows through a duct into the heat exchanger which is outside the

concrete radiation shielding. In the heat exchanger, steam is generated in a secondary loop. There a
pipe brings in water which is heated to steam, and this then flows out to the turbo-alternator.
Meanwhile the hot gas sinks to the bottom of the heat exchanger and passes through a gas blower
which pushes it into a cool gas duct and back to the reactor.

As can be seen, this is a continuous cycle that keeps the reactor from overheating, while carrying away

the heat and steam, which will power the turbines.
(161 words)
sarzaminezaban.com
 

Persia1

مدیر تالار زبان انگلیسی
مدیر تالار
نمونه ای از رایتینگ Task 2 موضوع Argumentative Essay

نمونه ای از رایتینگ Task 2 موضوع Argumentative Essay

استاد حامد رفیعی دکتری ادبیات انگلیسی و نویسنده کتاب رایتینگ آیلتس

اشاره:

در این بخش قصد داریم نمونه ای از رایتینگ بخش دوم آکادمیک را برای شما آموزش دهیم.

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.​
Write about the following topic:

As mass communication and transport continue to grow, societies are becoming more and
more alike leading to a phenomenon known as globalization. Some people fear that
globalization will inevitably lead to the total loss of cultural identity. To what extent do you
agree or disagree with this statement?


You should write at least 250 words.

model answer:


Globalisation has become integrated through the global network of trade, transportation,
communication and immigration. It is feared by many to eventually bring an end to cultural
identity. However, I am convinced that not only will globalization help retain and improve
local cultures, but it also will strengthen cultural bonds between distant communities.
First of all, people can realise how they are different from others in distant lands, which may
lead to their interest in learning about other cultures. This means every culture will have to
preserve and present its unique features such as local cuisine or craftsmanship in order to
maintain foreign interest in itself and have something to offer in competition with other
communities. As a result, a sense of cultural identity can be reinforced – even rekindled and
restored where it has already been lost.
Secondly, cultures in different parts of the world familiarise themselves with the ceremonies,
food and clothes of other people, it is highly likely that they will begin to improve on their
own, thus developing more efficient ways of life while retaining their original characteristics.
Finally, although some people might think that the aforementioned “trade” of cultural
features can doom the unique identity of a culture, they need to consider that this will not
necessarily result in local people abolishing their culture and fully embracing another.
Instead, the communication and exchange involved in globalisation can improve
understanding and tolerance in the international community, which certainly can help with
the conservation of older cultures and their sense of identity.
In conclusion, I think if the positive aspects of globalisation are considered and stressed, it is
not likely to pose any threats to the cultural identity of local communities and will instead
contribute to it in a variety of ways.
(293 words)
اگر می خواهید در این قسمت از آزمون به نمره بالا دست یابید بهتر است از جملات و عبارات متنوع
استفاده کنید. برای این کار می توانید از عبارات زیر استفاده کنید تا رایتینگ شما نمره بالایی به دست
آورد.
Quantifiers:
Some
Many
Most
Verbs:
Appear
Seem
Tend
Frequency adverbs:
Sometimes
Often
Rarely
Expressions:
It is said that…
It is possible…
In some circumstances…
Model verbs:
Can
Could
May
Probability adverbs:
Possibly
Probably
Perhaps


منبع
سرزمین زبان
 

Persia1

مدیر تالار زبان انگلیسی
مدیر تالار
نمونه ای از نمودارهای دایره ای در آزمون رایتینگ آکادمیک

نمونه ای از نمودارهای دایره ای در آزمون رایتینگ آکادمیک

استاد حامد رفیعی دکتری ادبیات انگلیسی و نویسنده کتاب رایتینگ آیلتس

اشاره:

در این قسمت قصد داریم یکی از مهمترین نمودارهای رایتینگ آکادمیک را برای شما حل کنیم و نمونه رایتینگ آنرا همراه با نظر برایتان فراهم کرده ایم.

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.​
The pie charts below give information on the ages of the populations of Oman and Spain in
2005 anf projections for 2055. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main
features and make comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words​
model answer:
The pie charts show significant comparison of age groups in Oman and Spain. Initial
statistics are concerning 2005 and some predictions about the ages of the populations are
made referring to 2055.
It is apparent from the charts people who were under consisted half of the population of
Oman in 2005. 48% and a negligible 4% of Oman population were 15-59 and 60 and over
respectively. However, following a half century is assessed to bring staggering alteration of
dominant positions in Oman population. Proliferation from 48% to 57% can be cited as
example which will make 15 to 59 year old Oman people dominant in 2055.
However, in 2005, 62 percent of Spanish people were between 19 and 59. Predictions
about that status illustrate not significant alterations in the dominance of age groups.
Overall, it is important to note that, in 2055, proportion of people under 14 will slide away
in both countries. However, this trend will cause middle aged people to take over dominant
position solely in Oman.
(169 words)
در نمودارهای دایره ای باید به به نکات بسیار مهمی توجه کنید. همیشه سعی کنید تغییر اساسی را
بیان کنید. معمولا چند نمودار دایره ای آورده می شود که شما بایستی تغییراتی را که در این چند
سال آمده است توصیف کنید. سعی کنید از جملات مختلف و متنوع استفاده کنید تا رایتینگ شما
تکراری نباشد. برای این کار می توانید درصدهای مختلف را با هم جمع کنید و بگویید که برای هر
موضوع چند درصد صدق می کند.در بخش های بعدی این قانون را با مثال های مختلف توضیح خواهیم
داد.


منبع
سرزمین زبان
 

Persia1

مدیر تالار زبان انگلیسی
مدیر تالار
نمونه نمودار میله ای در رایتینگ آکادمیک

نمونه نمودار میله ای در رایتینگ آکادمیک

استاد حامد رفیعی دکتری ادبیات انگلیسی و نویسنده کتاب رایتینگ آیلتس

اشاره: نمونه ای دیگر از نمودارهای میله ای رایتینگ آکادمیک به همراه حل آن

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.​
The bar chart below give information about five countries spending habits of shopping on
consumer goods in 2012. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main
features, and make comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.​
model answer:
The chart compares the spending habits of shoppers in five European countries on six
consumer products, namely console games, outdoor game accessories, cosmetics, books,
toys and camera. Overall, more money was spent on the latter two than on any other
product.
It can be observed that in Britain, the highest amount of money was spent on camera (more
than 160 million pounds), while similar amounts were spent on console games and outdoor
game accessories. The Austrian spent the second highest amount of money on the first
three products while they stood last in the latter three. It is also revealed that Spanish
spent more money on toys than on any other product (a bit less than £150 million), but
they also paid a lot for camera. Finally, Belgian spent the least overall, having similar
spending figures for all 6 products compared in the bar chart.
To sum up, the British were the biggest spenders in all six categories among the nations
compared in the bar chart while the lowest spending levels were attributed to the residents
of Belgium.
(178 words)
نکته مهم در این قسمت این است که شما بایستی مهمترین اطلاعاتی را که در نمدار آمده بیان کنید
بدین معنی که اگر فکر می کنید این آمار و ارقام در نمدار بسیار کلیدی است ، باید حتما آنرا بیان کنید.
معمولا بیشترین و کمترین جز مهمترین آمار و ارقام می باشد که بیان نکردن آن می تواند نمره منفی
برای شما داشته باشد.
منبع: سرزمین زبان
 
  • Like
واکنش ها: Sima

Persia1

مدیر تالار زبان انگلیسی
مدیر تالار
نمونه نمودار میله ای در آزمون رایتینگ آکادمیک

نمونه نمودار میله ای در آزمون رایتینگ آکادمیک

استاد حامد رفیعی دکتری ادبیات انگلیسی و نویسنده کتاب رایتینگ آیلتس

اشاره: در این قسمت نمونه ای از نمودارهای میله ای را مورد بررسی قرار می دهیم که در آزمون رایتینگ بسیار مهم می باشد.

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.​
The chart below gives information about “Istanbul Promo plus” sales in 2007. Summarise the
information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where
relevant.
Write at least 150 words​
model answer:
The chart shows how Promo Plus in Istanbul fluctuated over a period of 12 months. It is
observed that in the first month of 2007, Promo Plus sales stood at 200 million turkish lira
and rose slightly to reach about 225 million in February. This was followed by another
increase, although much steeper, in March when sales where almost 125 million turkish lira
higher than February.
However, this upward trend was suddenly broken and sales plummeted dramatically over
the next 4 months to reach a little over 100 million turkish lira in July. August sales showed
a significant rise back to January levels as figures nearly doubled, but this was not to last as
they dropped again in September to the same level as they were in July. October came with
a small increase of about 100 million turkish lira in sales, after which sales figures levelled off
and remained relatively static over the last two months of 2007.
Overall, Promo Plus in Istanbul remained relatively unchanged in 2007 as January and
December sales were fairly equal. Also, sales were at their highest in March while the
weakest sales figures could be observed in July and September.
(197 words)
گاهی اوقات در رایتینگ آکادمیک از شما خواسته می شود تا در مورد زمان آیندی بنویسید که برای
این کار بایستی همانند سابق عمل کنید یعنی این که متن شما تغییری نمی کند و فقط زمان شما از
گذشته به آینده تغییر می کند.
منبع: سرزمین زبان
 

Persia1

مدیر تالار زبان انگلیسی
مدیر تالار
نمودار دایره ای در رایتینگ آکادمیک به همراه حل آن و توضیح فارسی نکات آن

نمودار دایره ای در رایتینگ آکادمیک به همراه حل آن و توضیح فارسی نکات آن

استاد حامد رفیعی دکتری ادبیات انگلیسی و نویسنده کتاب رایتینگ آیلتس

اشاره:

نمونه ای از نمودار دایره ای در آزمون رایتینگ آکادمیک بخش اول به همراه حل آن

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.​
The pie chart gives information on UAE government spending in 2000. The total budget was
AED 315 billion. Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and
make comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words​
model answer:
The graph tells us about the budget of the UAE government in 2000. In general, the most
important targets were social security, health, and education.
The biggest slice of the pie chart is taken up by social security including pensions,
employment assistance and other benefits which made up slightly under one-third of total
expenditure. Health and personal social services was the second highest budget cost.
Hospital and medical services accounted for AED 53 billion, or about 15% of the budget.
Education cost UAE AED 38 billion which comprises almost 12% of the whole budget. The
government spent about seven percent of revenue on debt, and roughly similar amounts
went towards defence (AED 22 billion) and law and order (AED 17 billion).
Spending on housing, transport and industry totalled AED 37 billion. Finally, other
expenditure accounted for AED 23 billion.
All in all, the bulk of UAE government spending goes on social welfare and health. However,
education, defence, and law and order are also major areas of spending.
(167 words)
نکته بسیار مهم در این نوع نمودارها این است که باید بر روی آمار توجه بسیاری داشته باشید. مثلا
اگر از درصد استفاده شده است در جواب باید از لغاتی چون large/small/higher/lower percentage
of … استفاده کنید ولی اگر از عدد استفاده شده است آنوقت باید از توضیحاتی
مثل many/more/most/few/fewer… استفاده کنید.

منبع
سرزمین زبان
 

Persia1

مدیر تالار زبان انگلیسی
مدیر تالار
نمونه ای از نمودارهای میله ای در رایتینگ آکادمیک به همراه حل آن

نمونه ای از نمودارهای میله ای در رایتینگ آکادمیک به همراه حل آن

استاد حامد رفیعی دکتری ادبیات انگلیسی و نویسنده کتاب رایتینگ آیلتس

اشاره:

در این قسمت با نمونه ای دیگر از نمودارهای میله ای و حل آن آشنا می شوید.

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.​
The bar chart shows the number of visitors to three London Museums between 2007 and
2012. Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and
make comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words​

model answer:
The bar chart illustrates information about how many people per year visited three London
museums over six-year period from 2007 to 2012.
Overall, what stands out from the graph is there was gradual upward trend in the number
of visitors of the National Gallery, which became the most popular museum from being at
last place, while the Victoria and Albert Museum followed the opposite trend. In detail, in
the first two years of the period, the number of visitors of Victoria and Albert Museum
remained stable at 13.5 millions, and then fell to 9 millions in 2010, while that of British
Museum, dropped significantly by 50%, from 12 millions to 6 millions and remained at this
level in 2009.
However, there was gradual upward trend in the number of visitors of both British Museum
and Victoria and Albert from 2010 to 2012, the former number doubled and the latter rised
by more than 50%, finishing at 14.5 and 40 millions respectively. In addition, there was
significant increase of the number of visitors of National Gallery over the whole six-year
period, the figure finishing at almost 16 millions.
(184 words)
نکته مهم برای این بخش این است که هیچوقت از نظر شخصی خود برای نمودارها استفاده نکنید.
شما بایستی تمامی آنچیزی را که در نمودار آمده است توصیف کنید بدون اینکه توضیح بیشتری در
مورد آن دهید. به یاد داشته باشید که بخش اول رایتینگ آکادمیک در واقع توانایی شما در ارائه آمار
را می سنجد نه قوه ی نتیجه گیری شخصیتان را.


منبع
سرزمین زبان
 

Sima

مدیر تالار مهندسی هسته ای همکار مدیر تالار زبان
مدیر تالار
کاربر ممتاز
[h=1]نمونه نمودار میله ای رایتینگ آیلتس[/h]

استاد حامد رفیعی فوق لیسانس زبان انگلیسی و دارنده مدرک Delta و Celta از دانشگاه کمبریج انگلستان

اشاره: در این بخش با نمونه ای از نمودارهای میله ای آشنا خواهید شد.

[h=4]IELTS Writing Task 1[/h]
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The chart shows components of GDP in the UK from 1992 to 2000. Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.
[h=3]Model Answer[/h]
The bar chart illustrates the gross domestic product generated from the IT and Service Industry in the​
UK from 1992 to 2000. It is measured in percentages. Overall, it can be seen that both increased as a​
percentage of GDP, but IT remained at a higher rate throughout this time.​
At the beginning of the period, in 1992, the Service Industry accounted for 4 per cent of GDP,​
whereas IT exceeded this, at just over 6 per cent. Over the next four years, the levels became more​
similar, with both components standing between 6 and just over 8 per cent. IT was still higher overall,​
though it dropped slightly from 1994 to 1996.​
However, over the following four years, the patterns of the two components were noticeably different.​
The percentage of GDP from IT increased quite sharply to 12 in 1998 and then nearly 15 in 2000, while​
the Service Industry stayed nearly the same, increasing to only 8 per cent.​
At the end of the period, the percentage of GDP from IT was almost twice that of the Service​
Industry.​
Words 182
[h=3]Comments[/h]
This answer meets the requirements of the task.
The introduction explains what the graph is about, and gives an overview of the main points.
The body paragraphs are ordered logically and clearly. The first body paragraph discusses the first three
years, where the patterns are fairly similar. This is contrasted in the second body paragraph, where the
GDP of each country diverges noticably.
There are a wide variety of sentence structures and the language of change is correctly used. The
correct tense - the past - is used.

 

Sima

مدیر تالار مهندسی هسته ای همکار مدیر تالار زبان
مدیر تالار
کاربر ممتاز
[h=1]نمونه رایتینگ آیلتس در مورد نقشه[/h]

استاد حامد رفیعی فوق لیسانس زبان انگلیسی و دارنده مدرک Delta و Celta از دانشگاه کمبریج انگلستان

اشاره: در این قسمت با نحوه نوشتن نقشه در رایتینگ آکادمیک آیلتس آشنا خواهید شد.

[h=3]IELTS Map - Writing Task 1[/h]
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
Below is a map of the city of Brandfield. City planners have decided to build a new shopping mall for the area, and two sites, S1 and S2 have been proposed. Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.
[h=2]Map of Brandfield with two proposed [/h] [h=2]sites for a shopping mall[/h]
[h=3]Model Answer[/h]
The map illustrates plans for two possible sites for a shopping mall in the city of Brandfield. It can be​
seen that the two sites under consideration are in the north and the south east of the town.​
The first possible site for the shopping mall, S1, is just north of the city centre, above the railway line,​
which runs from the south east of the city to the north west. If it is built here, it will be next to a large​
housing estate, thus providing easy access for those living on the estate and in the city centre. It will​
also be next to the river, which runs through the town.​
The site in the south east, S2, is again just by the railway line and fairly close to the city centre, but it is​
near to an industrial estate rather than housing.​
There is a main road that runs through the city and is close to both sites, thus providing good road​
access to either location. A large golf course and park in the west of the town prevents this area from​
being available as a site.​
190 words​

 

Sima

مدیر تالار مهندسی هسته ای همکار مدیر تالار زبان
مدیر تالار
کاربر ممتاز
[h=1]نمونه رایتینگ آیلتس در مورد جدول[/h]

استاد حامد رفیعی فوق لیسانس زبان انگلیسی و دارنده مدرک Delta و Celta از دانشگاه کمبریج انگلستان

اشاره: در این بخش با نمونه ای از جدول در بخش اول رایتینگ آکادمیک آشنا خواهید شد.

[h=3]IELTS Writing Task 1 Table[/h]
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The table shows the Proportions of Pupils Attending Four Secondary School Types Between Between 2000 and 2009 Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.
[h=3]Secondary School Attendance[/h]
2000
2005
2009
Specialist Schools12%11%10%
Grammar Schools24%19%12%
Voluntary-controlled Schools52%38%20%
Community Schools12%32%58%
[h=3][/h]
[h=3]Model Answer[/h]
The table illustrates the percentage of school children attending four different types of secondary​
school from 2000 to 2009. It is evident that the specialist, grammar and voluntary-controlled schools​
experienced declines in numbers of pupils, whereas the community schools became the most important​
providers of secondary school education during the same period.​
To begin, the proportion in voluntary-controlled schools fell from just over half to only 20% or one fifth​
from 2000 to 2009. Similarly, the relative number of children in grammar schools -- just under one​
quarter -- dropped by half in the same period. As for the specialist schools, the relatively small​
percentage of pupils attending this type of school (12%) also fell, although not significantly.​
However, while the other three types of school declined in importance, the opposite was true in the​
case of community schools. In fact, while only a small minority of 12% were educated in these schools​
in 2000, this figure increased to well over half of all pupils during the following nine years.​
Words 170
 

Sima

مدیر تالار مهندسی هسته ای همکار مدیر تالار زبان
مدیر تالار
کاربر ممتاز
نمونه رایتینگ آیلتس در مورد نمودارهای دایره ای



استاد حامد رفیعی فوق لیسانس زبان انگلیسی و دارنده مدرک Delta و Celta از دانشگاه کمبریج انگلستان

اشاره: این بخش در مورد نمودارهای دایره ای می باشد که استاد رفیعی نمونه حل شده آن را برایتان آورده است.

IELTS Writing Task 1 Sample 2

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The pie chart shows the amount of money that a children's charity located in the USA spent and received in one year. Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.
Model Answer

The pie charts show the amount of revenue and expenditures over a year of a children’s charity in the​
USA. Overall, it can be seen that donated food accounted for the majority of the income, while​
program services accounted for the most expenditure. Total revenue sources just exceeded outgoings.​
In detail, donated food provided most of the revenue for the charity, at 86%. Similarly, with regard to​
expenditures, one category, program services, accounted for nearly all of the outgoings, at 95.8%.​
The other categories were much smaller. Community contributions, which were the second largest​
revenue source, brought in 10.4% of overall income, and this was followed by program revenue, at​
2.2%. Investment income, government grants, and other income were very small sources of revenue,​
accounting for only 0.8% combined.​
There were only two other expenditure items, fundraising and management and general, accounting​
for 2.6% and 1.6% respectively. The total amount of income was $53,561,580, which was just enough​
to cover the expenditures of $53,224,896.​
Words 164​

 

Sima

مدیر تالار مهندسی هسته ای همکار مدیر تالار زبان
مدیر تالار
کاربر ممتاز
نمونه ای از نمودار خطی



استاد حامد رفیعی فوق لیسانس زبان انگلیسی و دارنده مدرک Delta و Celta از دانشگاه کمبریج انگلستان

اشاره: در این بخش استاد رفیعی نمونه ای از نمودارهای خطی را همراه با توضیح کامل آن برایتان حل کرده اند.

How do I answer an IELTS writing task 1?

To analyse this, we’ll look at a line graph. Look at the following question and the graph.​
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The line graph below shows changes in the amount and type of fast food consumed by Australian teenagers from 1975 to 2000.
Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.​
There are three basic things you need to structure an IELTS writing task 1.​


  1. [*] Introduce the graph
    [*] Give an overview
  2. Give the detail
We’ll look at each of these in turn.

1) Introduce the Graph

You need to begin with one or two sentences that state what the IELTS writing task 1 shows. To do​
this, paraphrase the title of the graph, making sure you put in a time frame if there is one.​
Here is an example for the above line graph:​
The line graph illustrates the amount of fast food consumed by teenagers in Australia between 1975 and 2000, a period of 25 years.
You can see this says the same thing as the title, but in a different way.

2) Give an Overview

You also need to state what the main trend or trends in the graph are. Don’t give detail such as data​
here – you are just looking for something that describes what is happening overall.​
One thing that stands out in this graph is that one type of fast food fell over the period, whilst the​
other two increased, so this would be a good overview.​
Here is an example:​
Overall, the consumption of fish and chips declined over the period, whereas
the amount of pizza and hamburgers that were eaten increased.
This covers the main changes that took place over the whole period.​
You may sometimes see this overview as a conclusion. It does not matter if you put it in the conclusion​
or the introduction when you do an IELTS writing task 1, but you should provide an overview in one of​
these places.

3) Give the Detail

You can now give more specific detail in the body paragraphs.​
When you give the detail in your body paragraphs in your IELTS writing task 1, you must make​
reference to the data.​
The key to organizing your body paragraphs for an IELTS writing task 1 is to group data together​
where there are patterns.​
To do this you need to identify any similarities and differences.​
Look at the graph – what things are similar and what things are different?​
As we have already identified in the overview, the consumption of fish and chips declined over the​
period, whereas the amount of pizza and hamburgers that were eaten increased.​
So it is clear that pizza and hamburgers were following a similar pattern, but fish and chips were​
different. On this basis, you can use these as your ‘groups’, and focus one paragraph on fish and chip​
and the other one on pizza and hamburgers.​
Here is an example of the first paragraph:​
In 1975, the most popular fast food with Australian teenagers was fish and
chips, being eaten 100 times a year. This was far higher than pizza and
hamburgers, which were consumed approximately 5 times a year. However,
apart from a brief rise again from 1980 to 1985, the consumption of fish and
chips gradually declined over the 25 year timescale to finish at just under 40
times per year.
As you can see, the focus is on fish and chips. This does not mean you should not mention the other​
two foods, as you should still make comparisons of the data as the questions asks.​
The second body then focuses on the other foods:​
In sharp contrast to this, teenagers ate the other two fast foods at much
higher levels. Pizza consumption increased gradually until it overtook the
consumption of fish and chips in 1990. It then leveled off from 1995 to 2000.
The biggest rise was seen in hamburgers, increasing sharply throughout the
1970’s and 1980’s, exceeding fish and chips consumption in 1985. It finished at
the same level that fish and chips began, with consumption at 100 times a
year.
The line graph illustrates the amount of fast food consumed by teenagers in Australia between 1975​
and 2000, a period of 25 years. Overall, the consumption of fish and chips declined over the period,​
whereas the amount of pizza and hamburgers that were eaten increased.​
In 1975, the most popular fast food with Australian teenagers was fish and chips, being eaten 100​
times a year. This was far higher than Pizza and hamburgers, which were consumed approximately 5​
times a year. However, apart from a brief rise again from 1980 to 1985, the consumption of fish and​
chips gradually declined over the 25 year timescale to finish at just under 40 times per year.​
In sharp contrast to this, teenagers ate the other two fast foods at much higher levels. Pizza​
consumption increased gradually until it overtook the consumption of fish and chips in 1990. It then​
leveled off from 1995 to 2000. The biggest rise was seen in hamburgers, increasing sharply throughout​
the 1970’s and 1980’s, exceeding fish and chips consumption in 1985. It finished at the same level that​
fish and chips began, with consumption at 100 times a year.​
(191 words)
 

Sima

مدیر تالار مهندسی هسته ای همکار مدیر تالار زبان
مدیر تالار
کاربر ممتاز
[h=1]IELTS Process Diagram[/h]

استاد حامد رفیعی فوق لیسانس زبان انگلیسی و دارنده مدرک Delta و Celta از دانشگاه کمبریج انگلستان

اشاره: در این بخش با نحوه نوشتن روند تولید در رایتینگ آیلتس آشنا خواهید شد.

[h=3]What is an IELTS Process Diagram?[/h]
To begin, look at this question:​
You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The diagram illustrates the process that is used to manufacture bricks for the building industry.
Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.

A process will have a number of stages that are in time order. So you should start at the beginning,​
and describe each stage through to the last one.​
In the example above, this is fairly clear. It begins with the digging of the clay, and ends with delivery.​
Processes are not always this clear, and you may have to look more carefully to spot the beginning, and​
there may also be two things happening at the same time.​
So it is important that you look at other sample processes to get a good understanding of how they​
can vary.​
[h=3]Introduce the Diagram[/h]
As with any task 1, you can begin by paraphrasing the rubric:​
The diagram explains the way in which bricks are made for the building industry.
As you can see, this has been taken from the question, but it has not been copied. You need to write​
it in your own words.​
[h=3][/h] [h=3]Highlight the main points[/h]
An IELTS process diagram is different to a line, bar, pie chart or table in that there are not usually key​
changes or trends to identify. However, you should still give an overview of what is taking place.​
The ‘public band descriptors’ state that to achieve a band 6 or more for ‘task response’ the​
student must provide an overview in a task 1.​
As there are no trends to comment on, you can make a comment on, for example, the number of
stages in the process and how it begins and ends:​
Overall, there are eight stages in the process, beginning with the digging up of clay and
culminating in delivery.
[h=3][/h] [h=3]Giving the detail[/h]
Now you need to explain the IELTS process diagram, and there are two key aspects of language​
associated with this:​
Time Connectors
A process is a series of events, one taking place after the other. Therefore, to connect your stages,​
you should use ‘time connectors’. Here is the rest of the answer with the time connectors​
highlighted (notice that you simply go from the beginning to the end of the process):​
To begin, the clay used to make the bricks is dug up from the ground by a large digger.
This clay is then placed onto a metal grid, which is used to break up the clay into smaller
pieces. A roller assists in this process.
Following this, sand and water are added to the clay, and this mixture is turned into
bricks by either placing it into a mould or using a wire cutter. Next, these bricks are
placed in an oven to dry for 24 – 48 hours.
In the subsequent stage, the bricks go through a heating and cooling process. They
are heated in a kiln at a moderate and then a high temperature (ranging from 200c to
1300c), followed by a cooling process in a chamber for 2 – 3 days. Finally, the bricks
are packed and delivered to their destinations.
These connectors are the same you would use to write a graph over time when you explain a series of​
changes.​
These are some common IELTS process diagram connectors:​
To begin
Following this
Next
Then
After
After that
Before**
Subsequently
Finally
** If you use before, this means that you will be mentioning a later stage before an earlier stage, so​
you need to use it carefully. If you can use it properly though, it will get noticed.​
Here is an example using stages four and five:​
Before being dried in the oven, the mixture is turned into bricks by either placing it into a
mould or using a wire cutter.
The Passive
When we describe an IELTS process, the focus is on the activities, NOT the person doing them.​
When this is the case, we use the passive voice, not the active.​
This is a brief explanation of how to use the passive voice, but if you are new or unsure about using it,​
you should do some further study and practice.​
Most sentences use this structure:​
Subject + Verb + Object​
(S) A large digger (V) digs up (O) the clay in the ground.​
In the active voice (as above), the digger is doing the verb i.e. the digger is doing the digging.​
When we use the passive voice, we make the object (the clay) the subject, and make the subject​
(the digger) the object. We also add in the verb ‘to be’ and the past participle (or Verb 3).​
(S) The clay in the ground (V) is dug up (O) by the digger.​
So throughout most of your description for your IELTS process diagram, you should be using the​
passive voice.​
This is difficult as some verbs cannot take the passive. For example, 'to go' cannot be passive, so it is​
kept in the active voice:​
...the bricks go through a heating and cooling process.
This is why you need to make sure you practice the passive so you know exactly how to use it.​
Also, as you will see from the description, it is more usual to to comment on who or what is doing the​
action so the 'by...." phrase is excluded.​
Here is the same example description with uses of the passive highlighted:​
To begin, the clay (which is) used to make the bricks is dug up from the ground by a
large digger. This clay is then placed onto a metal grid, which is used to break up the
clay into smaller pieces. A roller assists in this process.
Following this, sand and water are added to the clay, and this mixture is turned into
bricks by either placing it into a mould or using a wire cutter. Next, these bricks are
placed in an oven to dry for 24 – 48 hours.
In the subsequent stage, the bricks go through a heating and cooling process. They are
heated in a kiln at a moderate and then a high temperature (ranging from 200c to
1300c), followed by a cooling process in a chamber for 2 – 3 days. Finally, the bricks are
packed and delivered to their destinations.
[h=3][/h] [h=3]Varying your Language[/h]
Sometimes it may be appropriate just to use the same language that you are given in the IELTS​
process diagram to describe it, but you should try to vary it.​
You may be able to use nouns from the diagram as your verbs. For example, the noun packaging in​
stage seven becomes:​
Finally, the bricks are packed
 
آخرین ویرایش:

Sima

مدیر تالار مهندسی هسته ای همکار مدیر تالار زبان
مدیر تالار
کاربر ممتاز
IELTS Bar and Line Graph



استاد حامد رفیعی فوق لیسانس زبان انگلیسی و دارنده مدرک Delta و Celta از دانشگاه کمبریج انگلستان

اشاره: در این بخش با نحوه تلفیق نمودار خطی و میله ای و نگارش آن آشنا خواهید شد.

Take a look at the question and the graph:

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The line graph shows visits to and from the UK from 1979 to 1999, and the bar graph shows the most popular countries visited by UK residents in 1999.
Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.









Introduction

When you state what the graph shows, mention both of them. Here is a sample first sentence of the introduction:​
The line graph illustrates the number of visitors in millions from the UK who went
abroad and those that came to the UK between 1979 and 1999, while the bar chart
shows which countries were the most popular for UK residents to visit in 1999.
Remember to write this in your own words and not to copy from the question.​
Next you need to mention the key points from the graph. When you do this, mention the most
interesting things from each:​
Overall, it can be seen that visits to and from the UK increased, and that France
was the most popular country to go to.
Body Paragraphs

If there are two graphs and a lot of information, you will have to be careful not to describe
everything as you may then have too much information.​
Also, the examiner is looking to see that you can select the important things and not describe every​
single detail.​
So the key skill when you have two graphs is being able to pick out the important information or​
summarize things in a concise way, otherwise you will end up writing too much and probably run out of​
time.​
Here is an example description for the bar and line graph:​
To begin, the number of visits abroad by UK residents was higher than for those that
came to the UK, and this remained so throughout the period. The figures started at a
similar amount, around 10 million, but visits abroad increased significantly to over 50
million, whereas the number of overseas residents rose steadily to reach just under 30
million.
By far the most popular countries to visit in 1999 were France at approximately 11 million
visitors, followed by Spain at 9 million. The USA, Greece, and Turkey were far less popular
at around 4, 3 and 2 million visitors respectively.
As you can see, the first paragraph discusses the line graph, and the second the bar chart.​
You will not usually need to mix up the descriptions. This will only make things complicated and difficult to follow. Writing about the first one and then the second one is ok.​

 

Sima

مدیر تالار مهندسی هسته ای همکار مدیر تالار زبان
مدیر تالار
کاربر ممتاز
[h=1]Describing an IELTS Pie Chart[/h]

استاد حامد رفیعی فوق لیسانس زبان انگلیسی و دارنده مدرک Delta و Celta از دانشگاه کمبریج انگلستان

اشاره: در این بخش استاد رفیعی نحوه نگارش قسمت اول رایتینگ در مورد نمودارهای دایره ای را به شما آموزش می دهد.


You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.
The pie charts show the main reasons for migration to and from the UK in 2007. Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant.
Write at least 150 words.​


The pie charts illustrate the primary reasons that people came to and left the UK in 2007. At first​
glance it is clear that the main factor influencing this decision was employment.​
Having a definite job accounted for 30 per cent of immigration to the UK, and this figure was very​
similar for emigration, at 29%. A large number of people, 22%, also emigrated because they were​
looking for a job, though the proportion of people leaving the UK for this purpose was noticeably lower​
at less than a fifth.​
Another major factor influencing a move to the UK was for formal study, with over a quarter of people​
immigrating for this reason. However, interestingly, only a small minority, 4%, left for this.​
The proportions of those moving to join a family member were quite similar for immigration and​
emigration, at 15% and 13% respectively. Although a significant number of people (32%) gave ‘other’​
reasons or did not give a reason why they emigrated, this accounted for only 17% with regards to​
immigration.​
173 words​
[h=3]Choose the most important points to write about first[/h]
These will be the largest ones. As you can see in the model answer, definite job, looking for
work, and formal study were all written about first, in order of importance, as these are the main​
reasons that were chosen for moving.​
Items such asother are usually less important and account for small amounts, so can be left till the​
end.​
[h=3][/h] [h=3]Make it easy to read[/h]
When you write a task 1, you should always group information in a logical way to make it easy to​
follow and read.​
With an IELTS pie chart, the most logical thing to do is usually to compare categories together
across the charts, focusing on similarities and differences, rather than writing about each chart​
separately.​
If you write about each one separately, the person reading it will have to keep looking between the​
paragraphs in order to see how each category differs.​
[h=3][/h] [h=3]Vary your language[/h]
As with any task 1, this is important. You should not keep repeating the same structures. The key​
language when you write about pie charts is proportions and percentages.
Common phrases to see are "the proportion of…" or "the percentage of…"
However, you can also use other words and fractions. These are some examples from the model​
answer:​
A large number of people
over a quarter of people
a small minority
A significant number of people

less than a fifth
This table presents some examples of how you can change percentages to fractions or ratios:​
Percentage Fraction
80%four-fifths
75%three-quarters
70%seven in ten
65%two-thirds
60%three-fifths
55%more than half
50%half
45%more than two fifths
40%two-fifths
35%more than a third
30%less than a third
25%a quarter
20%a fifth
15%less than a fifth
10%one in ten
5%one in twenty

If the percentages are not exact as above, then you can use qualifiers to make sure your description remains accurate. Here are some examples:​
PercentageQualifier
77%just over three quarters
77%approximately three quarters
49%just under a half
49%nearly a half
32%almost a third

This table presents some examples of how you can change percentages to other phrases:​
Percentageproportion / number / amount / majority / minority
75% - 85%a very large majority
65% - 75%a significant proportion
10% - 15%a minority
5%a very small number
The words above are interchageable, though number is for countable nouns and amount is for uncountable nouns.​
 

Sima

مدیر تالار مهندسی هسته ای همکار مدیر تالار زبان
مدیر تالار
کاربر ممتاز
[h=1]نمونه سوالات IELTS Writing Academic Task1 (قسمت سوم)[/h]

استاد حامد رفیعی فوق لیسانس زبان انگلیسی و دارنده مدرک Delta و Celta از دانشگاه کمبریج انگلستان

اشاره: قسمت سوم از مقاله استاد رفیعی که در آن به توضیح و آموزش بخش اول رایتینگ آکادمیک می پردازد.

Oil Production
Oil Production Capacity (estimated)

Oil Production Capacity
The graph shows oil production capacity in millions of barrels per day for selected Gulf countries .There
are several features [SUP]1 [/SUP]in this graph.
The most significant feature is that oil production will increase sharply [SUP]2[/SUP] in almost all the countries
shown. Kuwait and Iraq are both expected to double [SUP]3 [/SUP]their output between 1990 and 2010, with
Kuwait 's production rising from 1.8 million barrels per day (bpd) in 1990 to 3.8 in 2010.Iran will also
increase its output by a slightly [SUP]4[/SUP] smaller amount .After remaining steady at 2.5 million bpd from
1990 to 2000 , the UAE 's output is expected to approach [SUP]5 [/SUP]4.0 million bpd in 2010.only Qatar 's
production is predicted to fall, back to 0.8 million bpd after a slight rise in 2000.
However , the greatest increase will be from Saudi Arabia . In 1990, its output capacity at 8.5 million
bpd exceeded [SUP]6 [/SUP]the combined production of Iran ,Iraq and Kuwait. This lead is expected to
continue with a 75% increase in production to 14.5 million bpd 2010.
In summary ,while most of the countries are expected to show increases, Saudi Arabia
will maintain[SUP]7[/SUP]and strengthen [SUP]8 [/SUP]its position as the major producer.
1.feature: shape
2.sharply: suddenly
3.expected to double: anticipated becoming twice
4.slightly : alittle
5.approach: to come near
6.exceed: to be greater than a number or amount , go beyond
7.maintain: sustain, keep in existence
8.strengthen: make strong

US Spending Patterns, 1966-1996
US Spending Patterns 1966-1996
The pie charts show changes in American spending patterns between 1966 and 1996.
Food and cars made up [SUP]1 [/SUP]the two biggest items of expenditure in both years. Together
they comprised [SUP]2 [/SUP]over half of household spending .Food accounted for [SUP]3 [/SUP]44% of spending in 1966, but
this dropped by two thirds to 14%in 1996.However, the outlay on cars doubled ,rising from 23%in
1966 to 45%in 1996.
Other areas changed significantly . Spending on eating out doubled , climbing from 7% to 14% . The
proportion of salary spent on computers increased dramatically [SUP]4[/SUP] , up from 1% in 1996 to 10% in
1996.However, as computer expenditure rose , the percentage of outlay [SUP]5 [/SUP]on books plunged [SUP]6[/SUP] from
6% to 1%.
Some areas remained relatively [SUP]7 [/SUP]unchanged .Americans spent approximately [SUP]8[/SUP] the same amount of
salary on petrol and furniture in both years.
In conclusion , increased amounts spent on cars , computers , and eating out were made up for [SUP]9[/SUP] by
drops in expenditure on food and books.
1.make up sth : to form amount or number as a whole
2.comprise: include, be composed of
3.account for : to form the total of something
4.dramatically: suddenly or obviously
5.outlay:expended money
6.plunge: to fall suddenly
7.relatively: comparatively
8.approximately: nearly
9:make up for something : compensate
Total Graduate by Level

Higher College Graduates

The charts show student enrolment by gender and level in different colleges of the Higher Colleges of
Technology colleges in the UAE.
There are clear differences in male and female enrolment . Females outnumber [SUP]1[/SUP]men in all colleges ,
with almost 25% more students in Dubai Women's college than in Dubai Men's . Ras Al-Khaimah
Women's college has almost 180 students , compared to only 100 in the Men 's college
Females also outnumber males by level , with almost double the number of men at Higher Diploma level
(330 compared to 181). Only at Diploma level does the number of men slightly exceed that of women.
Over half the students are in Certificate level , with less than a quarter at Higher Diploma or Bachelor
level.
In conclusion [SUP]2[/SUP] , most students in the Higher Colleges are enrolled at Diploma level or below , and
the majority [SUP]3[/SUP] of students are women.
143 words
1.outnumber: exceed in number
2.in conclusion: in result
3. majority : greater part or number

UAE Moves Ahead in Health, Education
January 22, 2003


The graphs show health and education spending and changes in life expectancy[SUP] 1[/SUP] and
infant [SUP]2 [/SUP]mortality [SUP]3 [/SUP]in the UAE. Overall, as the percentage spent on health and education increases ,
infant mortality and life expectancy improve.
Graph 1 shows the percentage of GDP [SUP]4 [/SUP]spent on health and education between 1985 and 1993 .
There were big increases in both areas. Health spending stood at about 8%in 1985 but rose to 9% in
1990 and 10% in 1993. Spending on education was even higher. It was 10% in 1985, and shot
up [SUP]5[/SUP] to 14% in 1990 and 15% in 1993, a 50% increase in just 8 years.
Graph 2 shows improvements in life expectancy and infant mortality between 1970 and 1992. Life
expectancy was just 60 in 1970 but rose to almost 72 in 1992. In contrast [SUP]6 [/SUP], the number of babies
dying dropped dramatically , from 60 per 1000 in 1970 to only 22 in 1992.
In conclusion, people in the UAE are living longer and healthier lives because of the government 's
spending on education and medical facilities.
1.expectancy:hope,anticipation
2.infant: babyish
3.mortality:rate of death
4. GDP: ABBREVIATION for Gross Domestic Product ,the total value of goods and services produced by a country in a year
5.shoot up : to increase
6.in contrast: in compare


 

Sima

مدیر تالار مهندسی هسته ای همکار مدیر تالار زبان
مدیر تالار
کاربر ممتاز
[h=1]IELTS Task 1 Describing a Graph Over Time[/h]

استاد حامد رفیعی فوق لیسانس زبان انگلیسی و دارنده مدرک Delta و Celta از دانشگاه کمبریج انگلستان

اشاره: در این بخش استاد رفیعی نکات مربوط به نمودارهای خطی را به شما آموزش می دهند.

The bar chart shows the number of times per week (in 1000s), over five weeks,
that three computer packages were downloaded from the internet.
Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make
comparisons where relevant.
Model Answer
The bar chart illustrates the download rate per week of ActiveX, Java and Net computer packages over​
a period of five weeks. It can clearly be seen that ActiveX was the most popular computer package to​
download, whilst Net was the least popular of the three.​
To begin, ActiveX and Java showed a similar pattern, with both gradually increasing from week 1 to​
week 5. However, the purchases of Active X remained significantly higher than for the other product​
over this time frame. In week 1, purchases of ActiveX stood at around 75,000, while those for Java​
were about 30,000 lower. With the exception of a slight fall in week 4, downloading of ActiveX kept​
increasing until it reached a peak in the final week of just over 120,000. Java also increased at a steady​
rate, finishing the period at 80,000.​
The product that was downloaded the least was Net. This began at slightly under 40,000, and, in​
contrast to the other two products, fell over the next two weeks to reach a low of approximately​
25,000. It then increased sharply over the following two weeks to finish at about 50,000, which was​
well below that of ActiveX.​
(Words 197)​
[h=3]Language of Change[/h]
As you can see, there are several examples of this in the graph, so it is important to learn how to use​
these correctly in order to successfully write an IELTS task 1 chart over time. Here are some examples:​
gradually increasing
a slight fall
kept rising
reached a peak
increased at a steady rate
fell
increased sharply
a low of
finish at
stood at
finishing the period at
You will need to practice this type of language, and also make sure you know a variety of structures to​
get a better score – if you keep repeating the same kind of phrases this will show you have a more​
limited range of lexis and grammar.​
[h=3]Making Comparisons[/h]
In IELTS task 1, you must also compare the data as you are asked to do in the rubric.​
If you just write about what happened to ActiveX, what happened to Java, and what happened to​
Net, without showing any relationship between them, this won’t be enough.​
Here are some examples of where comparisons are made between the products in the IELTS task 1​
graph, and the language of comparison is highlighted in black:​
It can clearly be seen that ActiveX was the most popular computer package to
download, whilst Net was the least popular of the three
ActiveX and Java showed a similar trend, with both gradually increasing from week 1 to
week 5
However, the purchases of Active X remained significantly higher than for the other
product over this time frame.
In week 1, purchases of ActiveX stood at around 75,000, while those for Java were
about 30,000 lower
Java also increased at a steady rate, finishing the period at 80,000
The product that was downloaded the least was Net. This began at slightly under
40,000, and, in contrast to the other two products, fell over the next two weeks
It then increased sharply over the following two weeks to finish at about 50,000, which
was well below that of ActiveX
[h=3]Grouping the Data[/h]
It is a good idea to divide your answer into paragraphs so it is well organized. To do this, you should​
group similar things together into paragraphs or sections.​
If you look at the chart, you will see that ActiveX and Java have a similar pattern, both steadily​
increasing over the period (apart from the slight fall of ActiveX in week 4), so these could be put​
together:​
To begin, ActiveX and Java showed a similar trend, with both gradually increasing from
week 1 to week 5. However, the purchases of Active X remained significantly higher
than for the other product over this time frame. In week 1, purchases of ActiveX stood
at around 75,000, while those for Java were about 30,000 lower. With the exception of
a slight fall in week 4, downloading of ActiveX kept rising until it reached a peak in the
final week of just over 120,000. Java also increased at a steady rate, finishing the period
at 80,000.
On the other hand, Net is the lowest and it has a different pattern – falling and then rising again. So​
this could be described in another paragraph:​
The product that was downloaded the least was Net. This began at slightly under
40,000, and, in contrast to the other two products, fell over the next two weeks to a
low of approximately 25,000. It then increased sharply over the following two weeks to
finish at about 50,000, which was well below that of ActiveX.
There is usually more than one way to group the data for an IELTS task 1, so this needs to be your​
decision. As long as it is logical and makes your answer easy to follow and read, this should be ok.​
 

Sima

مدیر تالار مهندسی هسته ای همکار مدیر تالار زبان
مدیر تالار
کاربر ممتاز
[h=1]نمونه سوالات IELTS Writing Academic Task1[/h]

استاد حامد رفیعی فوق لیسانس زبان انگلیسی و دارنده مدرک Delta و Celta از دانشگاه کمبریج انگلستان

اشاره: در این مقاله استاد رفیعی نمونه ای از رایتینگ Task 1 آکادمیک را با نحوه نوشتار آن به شما داوطلبین عزیز آموزش داده اند.




Underground Station Passengers Numbers
The graph shows the fluctuation [SUP]1 [/SUP]in the number of people at a London underground station over
the course of a day.
The busiest time of the day is in the morning .There is a graph increase [SUP]2 [/SUP]between 06:00 and
08:00,with 400 people using the station at 8 o'clock . After this the number drop [SUP]3[/SUP] quickly to less
than 200 at 10 o'clock .Between 11 am and 3pm the number rises , with a plateauof just under 300
people using the station .
In the afternoon ,numbers decline [SUP]4[/SUP], with less than 100 using the station at 4 pm . There is then a
rapid [SUP]5[/SUP] rise [SUP]6[/SUP] to a peak [SUP]7[/SUP] of 380 at 6 pm. After 7 pm, numbers fall significantly [SUP]8[/SUP] ,with only a slight
increase again at 8 pm, tailing off [SUP]9 [/SUP]after 9 pm.
Overall [SUP]10[/SUP] ,the graph shows that the station is most crowded in the early morning and early evening
periods.
1. fluctuation: vacillation, instability, change
2.increase: to become larger
3.drop: fall, go down
4.decline: go down decrease
5.rapid: quick, fast
6.rise: move upward
7.peak: top, summit
8.significantly: remarkably
9.Tail off: to reduce in amount , become lower in level
10.Overall: in general , generally


North American Fish Catch
Annual fish catch (millions of tonnes):North America​
North American fisheries have been in severe decline since the late 1980s, with at least one-
third of all species overfished.
North American fish catchers
The graph shows changes in fish catches for the US and Canada over the last 30 years.
The most significant feature is that fish catches have declined drastically in both the US and Canada
since the mid-1980s.Although Canadian production is much lower ,its echoes US figures, declining or
increasing at the same rate.
Between 1972 and 1977, US fish catches averaged between 2.5 and 2.75 million tonnes per year,
while Canadian landings fluctuated between 800,000 and 1.1 million tonnes .In 1997, however , there
was a big increase in fish caught in the US, this rise continued up to a peak of 5.5 million tonnes in 1987
. During the same period , Canada 's catch increased from 1 million tonnes to 1.5 million tonnes, an
increase of 50%.
From 1987 onwards , there was a sudden decline in both countries .US figures tumbled[SUP] 1 [/SUP]to 4 million
tonnes in 1995 , a drop of 28% , and Canadian catches plunged [SUP]2 [/SUP]to 0.5 million tonnes , a drop of
66%. In the following four years , US catches fluctuated around the 4 million tone mark , while
Canadian catches rose very slightly.
In general, both Canadian and the much larger US catch have declined dramatically [SUP]3[/SUP] since their peak
in the mid -1980s.
202 words
1.tumble : to fall quickly
2.plunge : to move or fall suddenly
3.dramatically : suddenly or obviously

 

Sima

مدیر تالار مهندسی هسته ای همکار مدیر تالار زبان
مدیر تالار
کاربر ممتاز
[h=1]نمونه سوالات IELTS Writing Academic Task1 (قسمت دوم)[/h]

استاد حامد رفیعی فوق لیسانس زبان انگلیسی و دارنده مدرک Delta و Celta از دانشگاه کمبریج انگلستان

اشاره: در این مقاله که ادامه مقاله قبلی می باشد، استاد رفیعی نمودارهای دیگری را در رایتینگ Task 1 به شما آموزش می دهند.

Heart Attacks by Age and Gender, USA
The graph shows how age and gender influence the frequency of heart attacks in the US.
Less than 6% of all heart attacks occur in the 29-44 age group .The number of women who suffer
heart attacks in this group is negligible[SUP]1[/SUP]-only 3000 per year ,compared to 123,000 men.
However the proportion [SUP]2 [/SUP]of men and women with heart attacks rises dramatically [SUP]3 [/SUP]between 45
and 64, with over half a million per year. Over 420,000 men a year in this age group have heart attacks
.The incidence amongst women increases - women have one heart attack for every three men in this
age group.
Over the age of 65 , the number of men suffering heart attacks only increases slightly . However there
is a huge increase in the number of women with heart attacks –they comprise over 40% of all victims.
In conclusion , men are more likely to be the victims of heart attacks at all ages, but women are
increasingly likely over the age of 65.
168 words
1.negligible : too small in amount
2.proportion : amount, size
3.dramatically : suddenly or obviously
Fertility Rates (Births per Woman) in Persian Gulf Countries, 1990-2000
Fertility Rates
The chart shows striking [SUP]1 [/SUP]changes in the fertility rate of women in six Persian Gulf countries –Saudi
Arabia, the UAE, Oman ,Qatar, Kuwait and Bahrain between 1990 and 2000.
In the ten year period , there was a decline [SUP]2 [/SUP]in the number of births per woman in all countries .
The biggest decline were in two countries which had low fertility rates at the start of the decade,
Bahrain and the UAE.
Fertility rates vary greatly [SUP]3 [/SUP]between the six countries . Oman and Saudi Arabia had the highest rates,
with over seven births per woman in 1990.this compared with around 4 births per woman in Bahrain
and the UAE, and just 3.75 in Kuwait.
By 2000, the rate had fallen below three births per woman in Kuwait ,Bahrain and UAE, with a drop
of over 25% in a decade in the UAE . However , in Saudi Arabia and Oman ,the rates fell by just 20%
from 7.0 to 5.5.
In summary [SUP]4 [/SUP], there were major decreases in birth rates in all countries ,but some countries in the
region have double the fertility rate of others.
1.striking : more attractive than usual
2.decline: decrease, go down
3.greatly: very much extremely
4.in summary: in brief
162 words
 

Sima

مدیر تالار مهندسی هسته ای همکار مدیر تالار زبان
مدیر تالار
کاربر ممتاز
[h=1]Writing Task 1 #86[/h]

استاد رفیعی

اشاره: Table Model Answer

Academic Task 1
Download: NO 86.pdf
Size: 280 k
 

Sima

مدیر تالار مهندسی هسته ای همکار مدیر تالار زبان
مدیر تالار
کاربر ممتاز
[h=1]آموزش بخش اول رایتینگ آیلتس آکادمیک[/h]

استاد حامد رفیعی فوق لیسانس زبان انگلیسی و دارنده مدرک Delta و Celta از دانشگاه کمبریج انگلستان

اشاره: در این مقاله استاد رفیعی کوشیده است تا توضیحی کلی و شفاف در مورد بخش اول رایتینگ آیلتس دهند.


در بخش writing در آزمون آیلتس یکی از مهمترین قسمت ها نگارش یک مقدمه (introduction) خوب و مناسب میباشد.
مقدمه باید ویژگی های زیر را دارا باشد:

♦ موضوع (topic) را بطور دقیق و مو به مو بازنویسی کند. البته حتما و باید آنرا با زبان دیگر بیان (re-state) کند.
♦ در task 2 باید موضع (position) شما به عنوان نویسنده در مقدمه ذکر شود.یعنی بیان کنید که موافقید یا مخالفید یا نظرکلی خود را ذکر کنید.


در این مطلب سعی داریم مبحث مقدمه در آیلتس را در بخش نگارش (Ielts writing) بررسی کنیم:

Ielts Academic Writing- Task 1
در بخش اول آزمون نگارش آکادمیک معمولا به شما یک نمودار میدهند که باید آنرا در یک مقاله ی 150 کلمه ای
تفسیر کنید.
در مقدمه ی این مقاله باید در حدود 30 کلمه بتوانید چند سطر بنویسید و آغاز سخن کنید.
در این مقدمه لازم است کلیات را مطرح کنید و از بیان جزییات خود داری کنید. به مثال زیر دقت کنید:

The graph shows the changes in fish catches for the US and Canada over the last 30 years......
همانطور که میبینید ، مقدمه ی خود را میتوانید با عباراتی از این قبیل آغاز کنید و سپس یک توضیح کلی در باره ی نمودار بیاورید:
The chart tries to show....
As you see, in this chart there has been a......
This graph intends to declare that....
 

Sima

مدیر تالار مهندسی هسته ای همکار مدیر تالار زبان
مدیر تالار
کاربر ممتاز
[h=1]نمونه رایتینگ تصحیح شده بخش دوم آکادمیک در مورد Mobility due to improved transport and communication[/h]

استاد حامد رفیعی دکتری ادبیات انگلیسی و نویسنده کتاب رایتینگ آیلتس

اشاره: نمونه ای دیگر از رایتینگ تصحیح شده داوطلب در آزمون آیلتس آکادمیک.

Today, people in many countries can live and work anywhere they choose, because of improved communication technology and transport.

Do the advantages of this phenomenon outweigh its disadvantages?


Nowadays we may not only enjoy our talking or meeting through touching one button on a small screen
whenever we are and wherever we are,but we also may enjoy our travelling with a variety of means of
transport. There is no doubt that the new science and technology are bringing huge changes into our life.

Firstly, for the globalization, the time and distance are no longer barriers to the international trade and
exchange like teleconferencing as a result of improvement of communication means and transport. Secondly,
for education, all kinds of the teaching approaches such as distance learning allow teachers and students to
work more efficiently and effectively. Furthermore, for our daily life, people could live or work at any place
they are willing to, even miles away from their hometown as they could be back home easily by bus,
underground, private car, fairy, flight and so on and stay in touch with their family at any time by the means
of communication equipments.
However, everything has a negative side. While we enjoy the comforting and luxury of our dwelling derived
from the development of science and technology, we have to realize that some damages on human health
and living environment also have been occurred inevitably. As we known, the development of the automobile
industry has been intensified the consumption of the natural resources and the pollution of environment.
Another notable problem is that people are becoming more and more over dependent on using all types of
digital devices. Some researches have shown that these kinds of products would generate the new human
illnesses and would have the negative effect on some abilities of human such problem solving without those
products.
Overall, everything has two sides, positive and negative. Therefore, the advanced science and technology
give us more convenient and more comfortable life; meanwhile it also has the negative fallout. But in my view,
the advantages of this should outweigh its disadvantages because development is the only meaning of the
existence of mankind. The key point should be what we are going to minimize the risks resulted by
development and take all outcome of development into consideration on the ground of concept of
sustainability.
Corrected Version:
Nowadays we may not only enjoy our talking or meeting through touching one button on a small screen
whenever we are want and wherever we are, but we also may enjoy our travelling with a variety of means
of transport. There is no doubt that the new science and technology are bringing huge changes into our life.
(You should try and make the topic a bit clearer in your introduction i.e. being able to ‘live and
work anywhere’).
Firstly, for the regarding globalization, the time and distance are no longer barriers to the international
trade and exchange like teleconferencing as a result of the improvement of communication means and
transport. Secondly, for regarding education, all kinds of the teaching approaches such as distance learning
allow teachers and students to work more efficiently and effectively (It's not clear how these first two
points you have mentioned - 'trade' and 'education' - are answering the question. How are
they related to living and working anywhere?). Furthermore, for our daily life, people could live or
work at any place they are willing to, even miles away from their hometown as they could be back home easily
by bus, underground, private car, fairy ferry, flight plane and so on and stay in touch with their family at
any time by the means of communication equipment (And here you have mainly repeated what is in
the question - you haven't explained what kind of communication - you need more specific
details and examples).
However, everything has a negative side. While we enjoy the comforting and luxury of our dwelling derived
from the development of science and technology (How is an improved dwelling related to living and
working anywhere?), we have to realize that some damages on human health and living
environments also have been have also inevitably occurred inevitably. As we known know, the
development of the automobile industry has been intensified the consumption of the natural resources and
the pollution of the environment. Another notable problem is that people are becoming more and more over
dependent on using all types of digital devices. Some researches have has shown that these kinds of
products would may generate the new human illnesses and would have the negative effects on some
abilities of humans such as problem solving without those products.(Again, here you are being too
vague - what is causing what kind of illnesses? solving what problems and what specifically is
affecting it?)
Overall, everything has two sides, positive and negative. Therefore, the advanced science and
technology give provides us with more convenience and a more comfortable life; meanwhile it also has the
negative fallout. But in my view, the advantages of this should outweigh its disadvantages because
development is the only meaning of the existence of mankind (again, what do you mean by this?). The
key point should be what we are going to minimize the risks resulted by development and take all outcome of
development into consideration on the ground of concept of sustainability.(And again, I don't know what
points you are making here)

 

Sima

مدیر تالار مهندسی هسته ای همکار مدیر تالار زبان
مدیر تالار
کاربر ممتاز
[h=1]نمونه رایتینگ تصحیح شده بخش دوم آکادمیک در مورد Private Education[/h]

استاد حامد رفیعی دکتری ادبیات انگلیسی و نویسنده کتاب رایتینگ آیلتس

اشاره: نمونه ای دیگر از رایتینگ داوطلب آیلتس که غلط های زیادی در آن وجود دادر. با برطرف کردن این غلط ها سعی کرده ایم نکات بسیار مهمی را در ارتباط با رایتینگ آیلتس به شما آموزش دهیم.

Some people believe that the responsibility for providing education should be borne only by the government and that private education should be banned.

What is your own opinion on that matter?

In by-gone society, education meant going to the neighborhood government school. Lately, private education has been initiated in the modern society leading the heated argument concerned with banning the latter among the scholars. However, I firmly agree that education by private should be a part of national education.

Advocates in State education exclaim that private education could not support an equality among the public. The reason is that private education is introduced with business purposes targeting only the rich. Being designed with abundant educational facilities in order to provide good education, it creates less job opportunities for the unaffordable people in the future.

Another standpoint is that the curriculum of private institution does not suite for the respective children not for being drawn by the local curriculum experts to meet with the allocated national educational goals. In most cases, the syllabus is adopted from other countries lacking the value of their own countries’ identities and culture.

On the other hand, the opponents believe that compared to state schools, private education is rich in resources, facilities and technical methodology which would assist children’ learning to their top. As a result, it would be possible to build a knowledge- society with these future literate people.

Moreover, letting private education together with the government one is, to some extent, upgrading educational standard. In the respect of business, schools have to compete one another in persuading the customers, then, this would be advantage for the public.

Briefly, although private education could not cope with the massive population, it can benefit for minority up to some points. Therefore, instead of banning it, the best course would be enhancing government education, supplied by technological and human resources. (281-words)
Corrected Version:

In bygone society, education meant going to the neighborhood government school. Lately, private education has been initiated established in the modern society leading to the heated arguments among scholars concerned with about banning the latter. However, I firmly agree believe that education by the private sector should be a part of the national education system.


Advocates in State education exclaim that private education could does not support an equality among the public. The reason is that private education is introduced with business purposes targeting only the rich. Being designed with abundant educational facilities in order to provide good education , it creates less job opportunities for the unaffordable those people who cannot afford it in the future.

Another standpoint is that the curriculum of private institutionsdoes not suite for the respective children not for being drawn by the local curriculum experts to meet with the allocated national educational goals (I don't understand what you are saying here - your grammar / vocab use must be mixed up). In most cases, the syllabus is adopted from other countries lacking the value of their own countries’ identities and culture.

On the other hand, the opponents believe that compared to state schools, private education is rich in resources, facilities and technical methodology which would assist children’ learning to their top best level. As a result, it would be possible to build a knowledge-based society with these future literate people

Moreover, letting private education operate together with the government one is education is, to some extent, upgrading educational standards. In the respect of to business, schools have to compete with one another in persuading the customers, so then, this would be advantage for the public.

(You haven't explained this last argument properly - I am not sure what you mean. Who is competing with who and why would this be an advantage with the public?).

Briefly To sum up, although private education could not cope with the massive whole population, it can benefit for a minority up to some point. Therefore, instead of banning it, the best course would be enhancing improving government education, supplied by technological and human resources (again, not clear what you mean in this last sentence).

==================================================

FURTHER COMMENTS

Overall, your general organization is ok and it is good that you look at both sides of the argument, but some of your ideas are not presented clearly or explained enough.

I've noted the parts that I did not really understand above.

I firmly agree = only use 'agree' if you are asked if you agree or not with the statement.
 

Sima

مدیر تالار مهندسی هسته ای همکار مدیر تالار زبان
مدیر تالار
کاربر ممتاز
نمونه رایتینگ تصحیح شده بخش دوم آکادمیک در مورد Youth Crime - Reasons and Solutions



استاد حامد رفیعی دکتری ادبیات انگلیسی و نویسنده کتاب رایتینگ آیلتس

اشاره: در این رایتینگ سعی شده است نکاتی را که داوطلب در انجام آن رعایت نکرده به شما آموزش داده شود تا بتوانید به بهترین شکل ممکن از این نکات استفاده کنید.

Levels of youth crime are increasing rapidly in most cities around the world.

What are the reasons for this, and suggest some solutions.


There is no doubt that, almost every good and bad field has developed significantly over the past few
decades and it is too visiable in behaviour and actions of young people. As many people have mentioned that,
in many cities around the globe rates of crime by teenagers are increasing unexpectedly. The goverment as
well as parents are trying to find solution for this international problem. Many people believe that, wisely
chosen punishment is the best way to control the number of crimes in society. While, some of them believe
that, it is not the only way to reduce the level of crime. They think that, there must be another way.

First of all, no one can deny that, according to the recent figures, there is an increase in violent, robber and
even murder crimes among young people. As many scientists have claimed that,the main reason for this is
that, nowadays, youth are growing with lack of pay attention by their parents but also teachers. Moreover,
children are not getting social and emotional knowledge at their schools.

Second of all, action movies with murder, robber are being popular amongst youth. It is clearly seen that,
these sort of movies lead to an increase crime among teenagers as they try to copy what they have seen in
the movies. Futhermore, films have an important influence on young people who are influenced both by what
they watch and hear.

Third of all, nowadays, no one does amaze, when read on newspapers and watch on the television about in
most societies over the planet the number of crime is rising unexpectedly. In fact that, youth are breaking
laws especially rights of people with way of violence.

From my point of view, the best way to control as well as reduce the number of crime is replace severe
punishments than panleties are such as, financial and and even being in prison. Moreover, lack of social and
emotional knowledge is one of the main factor to increase crime among youth due to the government should
more pay attention to both education and law systems.
Grammar Corrected Version:

There is no doubt that almost every good and bad field has developed significantly over the past few
decades (I don’t understand what you have just said here) and it is visible in the behaviour and
actions of young people. Many people have mentioned that in many cities around the globe rates of crime by
teenagers are increasing unexpectedly. The government as well as parents are trying to find solutions for this
international problem. Many people believe that wisely chosen punishment is the best way to control the
number of crimes in society, while some believe that this is not the only way to reduce the level of crime. They
think that, there must be another way.
(Your introduction is too long)

First of all, no one can deny that according to recent figures there has been an increase in violence, theft and
even murders among young people. Many scientists have claimed the main reason for this is that nowadays,
youth are growing without paying attention to their parents and also teachers. Moreover, children are not
getting social and emotional knowledge at their schools.


Secondly, action movies with murders and robberies are popular amongst youth. It can be clearly seen that
these sorts of movies lead to an increase in crime among teenagers as they try to copy what they have seen
in the movies. Furthermore, films have an important influence on young people who are influenced both by
what they watch and hear.

Thirdly, nowadays, no one is amazed when reading in newspapers and watching on the television that in most
societies over in the world the number of crimes is rising unexpectedly. In fact, the youth are breaking laws,
especially regarding the rights of people by using violence. (this paragraph does not answer the
question in any way so it should not be here).

From my point of view, the best way to control as well as reduce the number of crimes is to replace weak
sentences with severe punishments such as going to prison. Moreover, lack of social and emotional knowledge
is one of the main factors to increase crime among youth so the government should more pay attention to
both education and law systems.

(Where is the conclusion?)
FURTHER COMMENTS

On a positive note, you do have some good ideas and content that are answering the
question, and at various points you have some good grammar and phrasing.

But at the same time, your grammar control is weak in a lot of places, as is your structure,
and you don't write enough about the solutions.

More details are below.

Content / Organization

Firstly, your introduction is much too long. Keep this shorter – see this lesson on writing an introduction:


Also, you do not appear to have a conclusion?

You also need to have more about the solutions. This essay will probably be seen as not fully answering the
question as there is so little on the solutions. You would have been better taking out the forth paragraph and
writing about solutions here instead as this paragraph does not answer the question.

Grammar

"They think that, there must be another way" = don’t use a comma after ‘that’.
You make this mistake many times.

"recent figures there is an increase in violent" = should be ‘there has been…’.
Use present perfect for something that started in the past and is still going on
now.

Second of all / Third of all = you can’t say this, only ‘first of all’ is possible.

Coherence

You have some quite big problems with coherence because you have some sentences that I
cannot understand. For example:

"replace severe punishments than panleties are such as, financial and and even being in prison"
 

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