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NATURAL HAZARDS AND DISASTER PLANNING

NATURAL HAZARDS AND DISASTER PLANNING

A REVIEW OF THE IMPLICATIONS OF PROSPECT THEORY FOR NATURAL HAZARDS AND DISASTER PLANNING

Traditional approaches for environmental hazards and disaster planning under conditions of risk and uncertainty are discussed, including normative expected utility theory, "satisificing", and robustness analyses. Prospect theory, a descriptive technique with roots in psychology, has emerged as an alternative theory of decision making under risk and uncertainty to utility theory and other classic approaches. Over the past quarter century Prospect theory has been increasingly used in various disciplines such as political science, public health, engineering, economics, insurance, and business. This paper aims to introduce and discuss some of the potential implications of prospect theory for environmental hazards and disaster planning theory and practice. It is argued that prospect theory can significantly enhance environmental hazards and disaster planning theory and practice, particularly for decision making under uncertainty. Several practical examples are provided to illustrate the strengths of this versatile method.



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Computer-aided ergonomics - a case study of incorporating ergonomics

Computer-aided ergonomics - a case study of incorporating ergonomics

Computer-aided ergonomics - a case study of incorporating ergonomics
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Computer-aided ergonomics and safety - A challenge for integrated ergonomics

Computer-aided ergonomics and safety - A challenge for integrated ergonomics

Computer-aided ergonomics and safety - A challenge for integrated ergonomics
Markku Mattila
Tampere University of Technology, Occupational Safety Engineering, P.O. Box 541, SF-33101 Tampere, Finland
Received 6 February 1995; accepted 10 March 1995

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Computer-associated health complaints and sources of ergonomic instructions

Computer-associated health complaints and sources of ergonomic instructions

Computer-associated health complaints and sources of ergonomic instructions in
computer-related issues among Finnish
adolescents: A cross-sectional study

Paula T Hakala1,2,3*, Lea A Saarni1,2, Ritva L Ketola4, Erja T Rahkola5, Jouko J Salminen6, Arja H Rimpelä1


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Ergonomics standards concerning human-system interaction

Ergonomics standards concerning human-system interaction

Ergonomics standards concerning human-system interaction
Visual displays, controls and environmental requirements

Tom Stewart
System Concepts, 2 Savoy Court, Strand, London WC2R OEZ, UK

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Conveyor Belt Entry Fire Hazards & Control - خطرات مربوط به نقاله ها

Conveyor Belt Entry Fire Hazards & Control - خطرات مربوط به نقاله ها

Conveyor Belt Entry Fire Hazards & Control

H. Verakis & M. Hockenberry
U.S. Department of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Triadelphia, West Virginia, USA

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Developments In Bulk Material Elevation Technology

Developments In Bulk Material Elevation Technology

Developments In Bulk Material Elevation Technology
P.W. Wypych
Centre for Bulk Solids and Particulate Technologies
Faculty of Engineering, University of Wollongong
Northfields Avenue, Wollongong N.S.W. 2522, Australia


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Incident at Jilin

Incident at Jilin

Incident at Jilin

Incident at Jilin

Wake-Up Call or Business as Usual?

On November 13, 2005, an explosion at a state-owned chemical plant in northeastern China's Jilin province released 100 tons of benzene and other pollutants into the region's Songhua River, killing five people and injuring 60 others. Within two weeks, the 80-kilometer-long toxic slick had flowed 370 kilometers north to Harbin, China's eighth largest city (population 3.8 million). As the tainted waters passed, residents endured four days without public water, and shortages caused widespread panic. Other downstream locales, including Khabarovsk, the largest city in Russia's Far East, witnessed similar scares, though most retained their water supplies.
Apart from the economic, ecological, and social consequences of the disaster, and unlike most industrial incidents in China, the Jilin disaster yielded major political fallout. Initially, factory and local government officials denied that the blast released any pollution and continued to repeat such statements for more than a week. As the slick approached Harbin, city officials informed residents they were shutting down the water supply to "carry out repair and inspections on the pipe network." It was only 10 days after the explosion that China's State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) finally confirmed that a "major water pollution incident" had occurred. The following day, journalists published a series of reports detailing efforts by officials to cover up the incident.
Fearing further damage to the credibility of the Communist Party, the Chinese government launched a full response. SEPA officials invited United Nations officials to test water along the river and provide expertise in chemical contamination and public health. After issuing a formal apology to Russia, China announced that it would set up a hotline to keep Moscow informed as the pollution approached Russian territory. In the town of Dalianhe, near the border, Party members went door to door distributing bottled water. Convoys of water trucks decorated with red banners proclaiming "Love the people-deliver water" drove through some cities, and residents were warned not to use the river water. Zeng Yukang, deputy general manager of China National Petroleum Corp., proprietor of the Jilin plant, went so far as to express "sympathy and deep apologies" to the people of Harbin. And in January, SEPA earmarked US$3.3 billion to clean up the river by 2010.
Perhaps most remarkable was the unprecedented shake-up in the government of embarrassed President Hu Jintao. On December 2, Xie Zhenhua, minister of SEPA and China's top environmental official, "resigned" from his post. The Communist Party Central Committee and the State Council, China's cabinet, publicly accused SEPA of underestimating the impact of the spill and blamed the agency for losses caused by the incident. Xie became the highest-ranking Chinese official to be removed from office for an environmental incident since China activated its new "accountability" system during the SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) crisis in 2003.
But he was only the first. Two days later, Yu Li, general manager of Jilin Petrochemical Company, lost his position as well. Shen Dongming, manager of the plant's benzene facility, and Wang Fang, head of a safety workshop, were also fired. "People who are found to have provided false information to investigators will...be punished severely," warned Li Yizhong, director of China's State Administration of Work Safety. By mid-week, the pressure had proved too great for Wang Wei, the deputy mayor of Jilin who oversaw the blast response and had been quoted as saying the accident did not cause widespread pollution. On December 7, Wang was found dead after apparently hanging himself.
Growing Accountability?
The Chinese government's about-face has triggered much speculation about the future of Chinese environmental protection efforts. Hu Kanping, a journalist for China Green Times in Beijing, believes Xie Zhenhua's resignation was a positive indication that the government is now taking major pollution events seriously. Hu believes the Jilin events will expedite the government's resolution of environmental conflicts and anticipates growing corporate accountability, including safer production. The need is urgent, highlighted by other year-end industrial accidents, among them a coal mine blast that killed 171 miners, a freak mishap in which a tanker truck carrying aqueous alkali fell off a ferry and plunged into a Yangtze tributary, and a waste spill from China's third-largest zinc smelter that contaminated another major waterway with cadmium levels 10 times above normal.
China's central government has made greater efforts to prevent such incidents in recent years, and after Jilin the government ordered local authorities to draw up emergency plans for closing plants with excessive effluent and factories that fail to improve environmental safety conditions. It also announced that it would check environmental standards at all factories lining the nation's rivers. Yet the practice of corporate social responsibility remains unfamiliar to most Chinese businesses, and ignorance of work safety, pollution, and educational needs-the underlying cause of thousands of tragedies-is widespread.
Industrial pollution is a sensitive issue in China, which now witnesses frequent protests over perceived corporate abuses, from the contamination of crops and local water supplies to uncompensated property loss. The Jilin accident added renewed vigor to citizen demands. In mid-December, 17 restaurant and public bathhouse owners and 3 Harbin residents filed a class-action lawsuit against the Jilin chemical plant. "I simply want to do justice to my fellow citizens in Harbin whose health has been under serious threat over the years by the contaminated river," Wang Baoqing, a restaurant owner seeking a symbolic compensation of 10,000 yuan (US$1,238), told South China Morning Post.
The More Things Change...?
Will the Jilin disaster have a lasting effect on government openness, environmental protection, and industrial oversight in China? Many activists in China agree that without the international attention it attracted, the incident probably wouldn't have provoked the government response it did. A month after the explosion, Wen Bo, Beijing representative for Pacific Environment, remained skeptical: "The Songhua accident is an emotional one.... It is a killing strip 100 kilometers long, affecting everything in its path. It has made a good story." Wen notes that the Jilin incident was simply one particularly visible sign of China's worsening environmental devastation, much of which goes unnoticed. "The sad fact is that there are other stories and other rivers with pollution...much more significant than this one. This kind of disaster is not rare in China. People suffer from severe pollution in every region every day." An estimated 70 percent of China's waterways are contaminated, for example.
Rather than seeing a silver lining in the leadership change at SEPA, Wen laments the loss of a strong environmental proponent. He called Xie's resignation "a pity," noting that "he is a rare person at SEPA and also in the Chinese government to have a firm grasp of environmental issues, with a scientific background. Not many people have his expertise."
Hu Kanping of China Green Times, who has worked personally with Xie's replacement, Zhou Shengxian, is more hopeful that the shift in leadership will bring new direction to SEPA-and new energy for environmental protection. Zhou "is a very honest worker," Hu explains. "He looks at the big picture while targeting specific problems and taking decisive action. I think with his leadership in SEPA, environmental protection will become a true field, with increased importance in the government and at the national level."
Both Wen and Hu agree that a change in overall development policy may be the only way to address China's deep-seated environmental and social problems. "A lot of China's celebrated economic growth is made at the cost of human health," Wen explains, citing the government's traditional reluctance to embrace any environmental goals that may hinder growth. "If people started organizing and claiming their environmental rights, then we wouldn't have such a high rate of GDP growth. Everyone at SEPA talks green-that is their business-but unless the economic sector takes initiative to make growth ecologically viable, then this talk is meaningless."
Over the past year, the Chinese government has shifted its rhetoric from a focus on economic growth at all costs to stressing a "harmonious society" where considerations of development and environment coexist. The events in Jilin serve as a key test of whether officials will put these words into action. But even if the disaster doesn't change government priorities in the long run, it has given activists like Wen Bo and Hu Kanping a high-profile event around which to organize their larger efforts to change the system. In the end, only the combined efforts of government, industry, and civil society will lead to effective protection of China's environment and human health.
 

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Incident at Jilin

Incident at Jilin

28 days, affected by the floods, chemical plant in Jilin City Yong Jixian 2 to about 7,000 barrels of materials to be into the Songhua River. Chemical reporter arrived yesterday where Yong Jixian Economic Development Zone, found that local road, weeds have blue barrels of raw materials.
have 3300 barrel not retrieved
News newspaper Jilin blue barrel back in the way of raw materials, straw in the corner ... ... This is a reporter yesterday afternoon Yong Jixian Economic Development Zone Strong Biological Chemical Co., Ltd. Asia close by to see the scene that the police had been stationed at the company, Mr. Wang has been head of police control.
yesterday afternoon when I went to Yong Jixian Economic Development Zone in Shanghai, Lu placed to see the number of police vehicles, the new bio-chemical Co., Ltd. Asia-strong policemen guarded the entrance, the road there are police everywhere spread Meanwhile, a police briefing, police temporarily took over the company, Mr. Wang has been head of police control.
is Zone to participate in the rescue of an armed police briefing, floods, flood just swept the building and the warehouse company, so caught up in the torrential flood of raw materials in the barrel, then charged into the 10 many kilometers Wind River, with wave flow of the Songhua River, not the outside world speculated on the river, as the company.
up at 18 o'clock on the on the 30th, floating in the Songhua River chemical materials have been recovered from the barrels of 3700, there are about 3300 to be salvaged. Yesterday, at the Chaoyang Yong Jixian upstream reservoirs and in the fullness of the Songhua River reservoirs to increase flood discharge has been coming storm response; This makes the Songhua River's water level has been rising, the work of the salvage some impact. Jilin municipal flood control headquarters staff, said staff had been transferred to the downstream organization Hadashan intercept point, where barrels of chemical raw materials to salvage the final. Yuan Ching's name
coastal residents to participate in the mobilization of Jilin salvage
AP 28, affected by the floods, chemical plant in Jilin City Yong Jixian 2 to about 7,000 barrels of materials to be rushed into Songhua River. Jilin Province, had initiated intensive salvage work. Due to river flow, river rapids and floating debris washed off the floods and other factors, these materials barrels scattered in the river began to bring large-scale salvage difficult to concentrate. Many residents along the two sides take into account both the experience of fishing, Jilin Province, to mobilize them to participate in salvage. Five trees in the town of Yushu City, Jilin Province, the salvage site, the reporter learned that, in addition to material incentives, involved in the salvage of the vessel can be free fuel.
30 to 9 am, reporters five trees in the town of Yushu City Palace Village of a pier to see, here neatly 40 yards with only the materials salvaged from the villagers barrels, most of is full of barrels. There are many villagers drove motor boat or vessel under the river for fishing.
prepared from the neighboring provinces of Heilongjiang diversion
AP at 30, in the Songhua River in Heilongjiang Province, set up six lines of defense. Are involved in the salvage work Zhaoyuan County of Heilongjiang Province, Deputy Director of Military Training for Dai Jun told reporters that six lines of defense are located in Jilin and Heilongjiang Province, the first line of defense in both rural Songyuan County Park stone bridge Tuen here in the Songhua River and Nen River 15 kilometers south of the junction; the sixth line of defense is Zhaoyuan County in Heilongjiang Province, the ancient town, just a total of 300 officers and men to use. It is understood that the six lines of defense is just west of the line of Zhaoyuan, in order to prevent accidents from happening, a number being set in the east line of Zhaoyuan.
same time, the Heilongjiang Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center monitoring program launched three emergency, on the surface section of the Songhua River provincial boundaries Zhaoyuan encrypted monitoring and toxicity indicators monitor through directional monitoring. The monitoring frequency has been the conventional 6 hours to 2 hours to once encrypted. Harbin, Jiamusi and other downstream cities along the Yangtze River has also been well prepared emergency monitoring.
reporter learned from the Harbin large supermarket, on the 29th afternoon, to the supermarket to buy mineral water customers began to decrease in mineral water sales declined, with the focus on the evening of 28 customers buy mineral water is in stark contrast . 30, these supermarkets sell mineral water district traffic returned to normal levels, abundant supply of mineral water brands, prices remained stable. Heilongjiang Provincial Department of Commerce also has Liaoning, Inner Mongolia and other neighboring provinces to contact at any time to prepare good diversion.​
 

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Process safety management lessons learned from a petroleum refinery spent caustic tank explosion

Process safety management lessons learned from a petroleum refinery spent caustic tank explosion

Process safety management lessons learned from a petroleum refinery spent caustic tank explosion

Kenneth P. Bloch and Dawn M. Wurst
Flint Hills Resources, L.P., 12555 Clark Road, Rosemount, MN 55068
Published online 24 March 2010 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI 10.1002/prs.10381

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An Historical View Of Mechanical Failure Prevention Technology

An Historical View Of Mechanical Failure Prevention Technology

An Historical View Of Mechanical Failure Prevention Technology
Henry C. Pusey, Shock and Vibration Information Analysis Center, Winchester, Virginia
Paul L. Howard, Paul L. Howard Enterprises, Newmarket, New Hampshire

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Chaos, crises and disasters a strategic approach to crisis management in the tourism industry

Chaos, crises and disasters a strategic approach to crisis management in the tourism industry

Chaos, crises and disasters a strategic approach to crisis management in the tourism industry

Brent W. Ritchie

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